In the Minor Collection







Book of Basket of Conduct






A Contemporary Translation

















Bhikkhu Mahinda

(Anāgārika Mahendra)

 Library of Congress Control Number: 2022911748


First Edition 2022


ISBN: 978-0-9990781-9-8 – Paperback/Softcover


© 2022 Dhamma Publishers

Roslindale, MA, USA








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Cover: Anāthapiṇḍika donating Jetavana to Lord Buddha, Bharhut Stupa, Indian Museum, Kolkata, India



As this is a dhamma book, please treat it with respect.  When you no longer need it, please donate it to your local Buddhist Society or Local Library.  Thank you.



To all the Sentient Beings -

desirous of Dhamma,

protecting Dhamma,

practicing Dhamma,

perfecting the practice of Dhamma –

May they attain to the ambrosial state of Nibbāna at the earliest.






























“Jāli, daughter Kaṇhājina, Maddidevi the faithful wife;

I didn’t think before giving them away, because it was for enlightenment.                           (V118)


“I didn’t hate either of my children, I didn’t hate Maddidevī;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave away the dear ones.                                    (V119)


Much gratitude is due to all the dhamma writers, especially Mr. G. P. Malalasekera, who compiled the Dictionary of Pāḷi Proper Names, which has been used generously to provide information on various Therā and personalities in this book.  All the clearly understandable and meaningful dhamma contained herein is due to them – all errors and misunderstandings are mine alone.

Thanks are also due to VRI-India, and in particular to Mr. S. P. Goenka and Mr. Lokesh Goenka, for their gracious permission to reproduce the CST edition Pāḷi source text in the book.  Also a grateful shout-out to the Digital Pāḷi Dictionary and its creator Ven Bhikkhu Bodhirasa.  With the addition of a Sandhi-Splitter, it is now a very useful tool – perhaps the best of the breed.  Much gratitude is also due to all the monasteries and meditation centers that have willingly taken on the task of distributing this book.

The book was completed while I stayed at the Sumathipāla Arañña, Kanduboda, Sri Lanka under the guidance of Pemāsiri Bhante.  I have benefitted much from the evening discussions with Bhante. 

I also thank the Sri Lanka Buddhasasana Ministry and Sri Lanka Immigration for extending my visa to complete the translation work, Mr. Nalin Ariyarathne for the cover and book design, and Ms. Pooja Gokul for the permission to use the Sanchi Torana sketch in the back cover logo.

All the donors and supporters in Sri Lanka are thanked for their kind and generous contributions of time and material that helped make this book a reality.

May all beings share bountifully in the merits of this work.  May all beings share in the merits of this work.  May all beings be happy, be peaceful, be liberated.


Sumathipāla Arañña, Kanduboda

Sri Lanka

June 2022

Table of Contents

Dedication  iv

Gratitude  v

Table of Contents  vi

Guide to Pāḷi Pronunciation  vii

Bibliography and Abbreviations  viii

Introduction  x

1. Akitivaggo – Section on Akitti 18

2. Hatthināgavaggo – Section on Hatthināga  47

3. Yudhañjayavaggo – Section on Yudhañjaya  64

Appendix 1: An Analysis of Cariyāpiṭaka  92

Appendix 2: Buddhist Path by Numbered Lists  94

Appendix 3: Vessantara  96

Appendix 4: Bhūridatta  99

Appendix 5: Mātaṅga  102

Appendix 6: Sutasoma and Porisāda  104

Appendix 7: Suvaṇṇasāma  106

Pāḷi-English Glossary  108

List of Books by Bhikkhu Mahinda (Anāgārika Mahendra) 152

Learn Buddhism App  153



Guide to Pāḷi Pronunciation

The Pāḷi alphabet consists of:


§  a (as in “cut” or “us”)

§  ā (as in “ah” or “art”)

§  i (as in “king” or “is”)

§  ī (as in “keen” or “eel”)

§  u (as in “put”)

§  ū (as in “rule” or “boon”)

§  e (as in “way” or “end”)

§  o (as in “home” or “ox”)

§  e and o are long before a single consonant (“me” & “bone”)

§  e and o are short before a double consonant (“end” & “ox”)



§  Gutturals: k, kh, g, gh, ṅ

§  Palatals: c, ch, j, jh, ñ

§  Cerebrals: ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ (tongue on roof of mouth)

§  Dentals: t, th, d, dh, n (tongue behind upper teeth)

§  Labials: p, ph, b, bh, m

§  Semivowels: y, r, ḷ, l, v

§  Sibilant: s

§  Aspirate: h

§  Niggahīta: ṃ (like ng in “song”)

§  Among the consonants, g is always pronounced as in “good,” c as in “church,” ñ as in “onion”.

§  The aspirates kh, gh, ch, jh, ṭh, ḍh, th, dh, ph, bh are single consonants pronounced with slightly more force than the non-aspirates, thus th as in “Thomas” (not as in “thin”), ph as in “puff” (not as in “phone”).

§  Double consonants are always enunciated separately, thus dd as in “mad dog,” gg as in “big gun”.

§  An o and an e always carry a stress; otherwise the stress falls on a long vowel ā, ī, ū, or on a double consonant, or on ṃ.


(Courtesy Venerables Balangoda Ānanda Maitreya and Bhikkhu Bodhi)

Bibliography and Abbreviations

ACC           Access To Insight (

APA           Walters, Jonathan S.; Apadānapāḷi: Legends of the Buddhist Saints; Whitman College 2018 (PDF Edition) (

CDB           Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi; The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Saṃyutta Nikāya (Teachings of the Buddha), Wisdom Publications.  2000 Kindle Edition.

CP              Bhikkhu, Mahinda; Cariyāpiṭakapāḷi – Book of Basket of Conduct: A Contemporary Translation, First Edition, Dhamma Publishers.  2022 Kindle Edition.

CP-H          Horner, Isaline B.; Cariyāpiṭaka: Basket of Conduct; The Minor Anthologies of the Pāḷi Canon; Sacred Books of the Buddhists Vol. XXXI; PTS 2007 (2-in-1 Edition, including Buddhavaṃsa).

CP-L           Law, Bimala Charan; Cariyapitaka; Motilal Banarsidass; 1924.  PDF Edition.

CST            Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyanā Tipiṭaka Electronic Edition copyright © 1995 Vipassana Research Institute.

                  See endnote 2 for abbreviations used by CST in Pāḷi text.

DHP           CST Dhammapadapāḷi.

DPPN        Malalasekera, G. P; Dictionary of Pāḷi Proper Names (Online Version:

ITI              Bhikkhu, Mahinda; Itivuttakapāḷi – Book of This was Said: A Contemporary Translation, Second Edition, Dhamma Publishers.  2022 Kindle Edition.

LDB            Walshe, Maurice; The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya (Teachings of the Buddha), Wisdom Publications.  1987, 1995 Kindle Edition.

MLDB        Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi; The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya (Teachings of the Buddha), Wisdom Publications.  2005 Kindle Edition.

NDB           Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi; The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Complete Translation of the Aṅguttara Nikāya (Teachings of the Buddha), Wisdom Publications.  2012 Kindle Edition.

Sn-B          Venerable Bhikkhu Bodhi; The Suttanipāta: An Ancient Collection of the Buddha’s Discourses Together with Its Commentaries (Teachings of the Buddha), Wisdom Publications.  2017 Kindle Edition.

TB&V         Bhikkhu, Mahinda; Theravāda Buddhism and Vegetarianism: A Review and Study Guide, Second Edition, Dhamma Publishers.  2022 Kindle Edition.

THAG         Bhikkhu, Mahinda; Theragāthāpāḷi: Book of Verses of Elder Bhikkhus: A Contemporary Translation, Second Edition, Dhamma Publishers.  2022 Kindle Edition.

THIG          Bhikkhu, Mahinda; Therīgāthāpāḷi – Book of Verses of Elder Bhikkhunis: A Contemporary Translation, Second Edition, Dhamma Publishers.  2022 Kindle Edition.

UD             Bhikkhu, Mahinda; Udānapāḷi – Book of Inspired Utterances: A Contemporary Translation, Dhamma Publishers.  2022 Kindle Edition.


Online Dictionaries

DICT-P       (1) PTS Pāḷi-English Dictionary–

DICT-S       (2) Sanskrit

DICT-W      (3) Wisdom Library–



At the outset, I would like to clarify that I am not a big fan of making every introduction in a book I publish to be different.  In keeping with that philosophy, the reader will notice that parts of this introduction are identical to what I have written previously in the introductions to my translations of Udāna, Itivuttaka, Theragāthā, and Therīgāthā.

The present book, Cariyāpiṭaka, belongs to the Khuddaka Nikāya of the Sutta Piṭaka of the Pāḷi Tipiṭaka.  Tipiṭaka literally means three heaps/collections/baskets, consisting of Sutta Piṭaka, Vinaya Piṭaka, and Abhidhamma Piṭaka.

Sutta Piṭaka is a collection of the suttā or discourses preached by Lord Buddha and his eminent disciples.  Vinaya Piṭaka is a collection of the rules and regulations by which the Saṅgha is to monitor and regulate itself and maintain the purity.  Abhidhamma Piṭaka is a collection of topics and indices to codify and remember the Teaching.

Sutta Piṭaka is further divided into five Nikāyā or collections, depending on a common characteristic, be it the size of the discourse (Dīgha Nikāya and Majjhima Nikāya), the theme (Saṃyutta Nikāya), or the number of things mentioned therein (Aṅguttara Nikāya).  Then there were discourses or collections thereof which were put into a basket named Khuddaka Nikāya, literally the Minor Collection, but which, by size, is the largest among the five Nikāyā.  Khuddaka Nikāya contains a number of books including Cariyāpiṭaka, the subject of this translation.

Dīgha Nikāya

Collection of Long Discourses

Majjhima Nikāya

Collection of Middle Length Discourses

Saṃyutta Nikāya

Collection of Thematic Discourses

Aṅguttara Nikāya

Collection of Numerical Discourses

Khuddaka Nikāya

Collection of Minor Discourses


I have always felt that the books in the Khuddaka Nikāya have not received their due because of a lack of freely available and approachable translations, hence this focus on translating the gems from the Khuddaka Nikāya.  CST AN 7.68 and MN 22.238 (NDB 7.68 and MLDB 22.10 Alagaddūpama Sutta, respectively) provide an early classification of the Dhamma literature, given by Lord Buddha himself: “... suttaṃ, geyyaṃ, veyyākaraṇaṃ, gāthaṃ, udānaṃ, itivuttakaṃ, jātakaṃ, abbhutadhammaṃ, vedallaṃ ...”.  NDB 7.68 translates this as “... discourses, mixed prose and verse, expositions, verses, inspired utterances, quotations, birth stories, marvelous accounts, and questions-and-answers ...” while MLDB 22.10 Alagaddūpama Sutta translates it as “discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, exclamations, sayings, birth stories, marvels, and answers to questions”.

Consider the fact that of these nine categories, at least four of them (gāthaṃ, udānaṃ, itivuttakaṃ, jātakaṃ) primarily or exclusively come from the books of Khuddaka Nikāya (admittedly, Book 1 of Saṃyutta Nikāya and many suttā in other Nikāyā have verses).  Thus, learning and understanding the gems of Khuddaka Nikāya does assume an urgent role for a student of the Dhammā who wants to learn the Buddha vacanā in all its multiplicities.  In previous efforts, we have translated Udānapāḷi, Itivuttakapāḷi, Theragāthāpāḷi, and Therīgāthāpāḷi.  Continuing the tradition, here is the translation of Cariyāpiṭakapāḷi.

Notes on the Pāḷi Text

Various books in the Khuddaka Nikāya, verily in all of Sutta Piṭaka, belong to different strata when they were compiled or added to the Pāḷi canon.  Based on linguistic analysis, most scholars believe Cariyāpiṭaka to be a later accretion to the Pāḷi canon – probably after Ashokan times.  However, language is not, and should not be, the only criteria to judge the age of a book.  All the suttā in this book are spoken by Lord Buddha and describe his past lives (Jātakā).  Jātakā are one of the earliest literatures in the entire world history, not just in the Buddhist Canon.  One may ask how and why?  Because when a Buddha Sāsana (dispensation) ends, all the teachings also disappear, leaving nothing behind until the next Buddha comes, who re-discovers the ancient path, re-rotates the Dhamma Wheel, and re-establishes the dispensation.  But not everything is lost.  When a Buddha’s teachings are lost in the inter-sāsanaṃ when no Buddha dispensation exists, some stories and sayings do survive – albeit in abridged form and mostly misunderstood (see MLDB 75.19-21 Māgandiya Sutta for an example of how a saying of previous Enlightened Ones survived from them to our Lord Buddha in an abridged form and was misunderstood by wanderers).  The Buddhist Jātakā as we have it do appear across a broad spectrum of Indian Literature, Buddhist and non-Buddhist alike, because they most likely survived from the previous Enlightened Ones dispensation.  Then, they were repurposed to fit into existing sectarian religions and used to teach social mores.  Thus, the Buddhist Jātakā and the message they send out is far older than what the linguistic analysts would have us conclude.

It should also be borne in mind that, while discussing the topic of antiquity, parts of a given book could be later than the general age assigned to that book.  Evidently Cariyāpiṭaka belongs to one of the earlier strata.  Some suttā herein are based on the suttā in LDB and MLDB – for a detailed analysis, see Appendix 1.

As can be seen from Appendix 1, 34 suttā of Cariyāpiṭaka can be traced across the Sutta Piṭaka.  If, more than 97% of Cariyāpiṭaka is duplicated across the Sutta Piṭaka, what was the need to have it in the first place?  The reason is obvious.  Keeping in line with the Indian inclinations, Cariyāpiṭaka was the first attempt at creating a biography of Lord Buddha – not a biography dealing with physical and mundane matters of this life but a biography stretching in to time immemorial to understand and enumerate the qualities that Lord Buddha developed over a period of 100,000 eons and four incalculables – a period beyond reckoning, an imponderable if there ever was one.  Cariyāpiṭaka was meant as a guide for those interested in developing their character and their pāramī, so they can get on the path to liberation.

Cariyāpiṭaka has a total of 356 verses, divided in 3 sections of 10, 10, and 15 suttā (total 35 suttā).

Themes of Cariyāpiṭaka

Thematically speaking, Cariyāpiṭaka as a collection exhibits certain common themes. 

1.                  The first and foremost theme underlying the entire book is that of liberation, of freedom, of Nibbāna – in this case, emphasizing the attainment of sabbaññutaṃ or omniscienceAs Ud 45 Uposatha Sutta states “Just as bhikkhus, the ocean is of one taste, the taste of salt; just like that bhikkhus, this Dhamma-Vinaya is of one taste, the taste of freedom”.

2.                  A second theme is that of the development of the ten pāramī, and how to go about it.  Appendix 1 Tables 1.1 and 1.2 provide a detailed analysis of the Cariyāpiṭaka in terms of the underlying pāramī for each sutta and how many suttā were preached for each pāramī.

3.                  A third theme is that of kalyāṇamittatā – how good friendship can lead one to breakthrough, and ultimately to complete freedom.  Cp 26 Temiyacariyā tells us that even devatā can act compassionately for our welfare, like the devatā did to help Temiya.  Cp 10 Sasapaṇḍitacariyā informs us that having a kalyāṇamitta can make your path easier, as it did for Venerables Ānanda (identified with otter), Mahā-Moggallāna (jackal), and Sāriputta (monkey).

Uniquities of Cariyāpiṭaka

I have been able to identify following uniquities in Cariyāpiṭaka that do not exist elsewhere in the Sutta Piṭaka.

1.                  Focus on Bodhisatta’s Past Lives

Cariyāpiṭaka is the only book (besides Jātakapāḷi) in the Sutta Piṭaka that has an exclusive focus on describing the past lives of the Bodhisatta in terms of the development of the pāramī or merits (literally aids to crossing-over).

2.                  Development of Pāramī

Cariyāpiṭaka, by describing the past lives of the Bodhisatta in terms of the development of the ten pāramī, recreates a biography of the Bodhisatta from time immemorial.

3.                  Quest for Sabbaññuta (Omniscience)

Cariyāpiṭaka is the only book in the Sutta Piṭaka that has a very detailed focus on the quest for the Sabbaññuta or Omniscience.  At ten places in this book, the Bodhisatta utters that “Omniscience was dear to me ...” that’s why I did a particular deed.

Out of these ten utterances, five are related to dāna (generosity), one to sīla (virtue), three to nekkhamma (renunciation), and the final one to adhiṭṭhāna (strong determination).

This also ties up with Buddhavaṃsapāḷi where Bodhisatta Sumedha (future our Lord Buddha) desires to obtain omniscience three times.  Similarly, Buddhā Vessabhū, Kakusandha, and Koṇāgamana are also shown desiring the omniscience in Buddhavaṃsapāḷi.  Thus, this quest for omniscience is something that many Buddhā engage in.  But why this quest?

Mahāniddesapāḷi-16 Sāriputtasuttaniddeso-V192 defines and describes a Buddha thus:

“Buddhoti yo so bhagavā sayambhū anācariyako pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu sāmaṃ saccāni abhisambujjhi, tattha ca Sabbaññuta pāpuṇi [patto (syā.)], balesu ca vasībhāvaṃ pāpuṇi.  Buddhoti kenaṭṭhena buddho? Bujjhitā saccānīti buddho, bodhetā pajāyāti buddho, sabbaññutāya buddho, sabbadassāvitāya buddho, anaññaneyyatāya buddho, visavitāya buddho, khīṇāsavasaṅkhātena buddho, nirupakkilesasaṅkhātena buddho, ekantavītarāgoti buddho, ekantavītadosoti buddho, ekantavītamohoti buddho, ekantanikkilesoti buddho, ekāyanamaggaṃ gatoti buddho, eko anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddhoti buddho, abuddhivihatattā buddhipaṭilābhattā buddho” (emphasis added).

Buddha means the blessed one, who by himself, without a teacher, fully penetrated the never heard before Dhamma and truths, and also reached the omniscience, and the control of powers.  Buddha is in what sense a Buddha?  He has penetrated to the truths therefore he is a Buddha; he teaches the generation therefore he is a Buddha; he is omniscient therefore he is a Buddha; he is an omni-seer therefore he is a Buddha; he is without a guide therefore he is a Buddha; he is perfected therefore he is a Buddha; he is taintless therefore he is a Buddha; he is without depravities therefore he is a Buddha; he is surely without any lust therefore he is a Buddha; he is surely without any hate therefore he is a Buddha; he is surely without any delusion therefore he is a Buddha; he is without defilements therefore he is a Buddha; he is going on one-ended path therefore he is a Buddha; he is solitary, unsurpassed, rightly enlightened therefore he is a Buddha; he is with non-intelligence destroyed and intelligence gained therefore he is a Buddha” (emphasis added, a complete definition of the Sabbaññuta appears at Paṭisambhidāmaggapāḷi-1 Mahāvaggo-1 Ñāṇakathā-72 & 73 Sabbaññutañāṇaniddeso).

Thus, omniscience is an attribute of a Buddha and indicates the attainment of the right enlightenment.  Now, why does a Buddha prefer omniscience over other attributes?  The answer is that just like while eating a meal, one may prefer a certain type of curry over another type of curry; in the same way a Buddha may prefer omniscience over other attributes of right enlightenment.

While Sabbaññuta also appears in many books of Khuddaka Nikāya (e.g. Cūḷaniddesapāḷi, Paṭisambhidāmaggapāḷi, and Milindapañhapāḷi), it doesn’t appear anywhere else in the rest of the Sutta Piṭaka.  It must be noted that all of the books where it appears are considered to be later additions to the Sutta Piṭaka – some, particularly Milindapañhapāḷi, were added as late as 1954-56 at the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyanā in Yangon, Myanmar.  But do remember, the time when a book was added to the Sutta Piṭaka is no sign of the age of the text.

Notes on Translation

Since the language and usage is so ancient and archaic, it is but natural that over the interceding two-and-a-half millennia, first in verbal transmissions and later in manuscript transmissions, inconsistencies and spelling mistakes would creep in.  Additionally, the meaning of the words, usage, and language itself would change and we see all of this reflected in the Commentary on Cariyāpiṭaka.  However, I have not attempted any linguistic or grammatical comparison or analysis in this book and have largely gone with translating the CST edition, except when an alternate version from a different source (as identified in the CST source) made better sense.  In most cases, such information can be gleaned from the endnotes. 

I have not been overly concerned with the commentarial exegesis except when the translation of a verse was problematic and I had to resort to Commentary to understand how the commentator understood the meaning.  Even then, as mentioned above, meanings were not always clear and I had to translate in accordance with my understanding of the Dhamma.

I have compared my translation with Isaline B. Horner (CP-H) translation; which is a complete translation.  While IB Horner refers to a translation of Cariyāpiṭaka by BC Law (SBB Volume 9, 1938); I have not been able to find that translation.  But I have found an even earlier semi-translation by BC Law (CP-L), which is not a translation in the traditional sense since author himself mentions in his Preface that “The verses of this text are so easy that they do not require any translation” and he only provides summary for each of the 35 conducts or suttā.  Additionally, whenever I found a similar verse or prose in another work such as LDB or MLDB; I have also checked my translation with that work as well.  All such information can be gathered from the endnotes.

This leaves us with a few technical things to be noted.

1.         I have NOT translated Buddha, Tathāgata, Dhammā, Saṅghā, Arahant, Nibbāna, jhāna, Bhikkhu, Bhikkhuni, Brahma, Brāhmaṇa, Brāhmaṇī, Deva, Devā, Devatā, Accharā, Nāga, Petā, Yakkhā, and Kamma (and their derivations) except as noted below, in glossary, and/or in endnotes.

a.                  Buddha is translated as rightly self-enlightened when used as part of sammāsaṃbuddha and derivatives.

b.                  Dhammā, when translated, has been translated as nature (e.g. samudayadhammaṃ, ṭhitadhammo, vipariṇāmadhammā), phenomenon (e.g. sahetudhamma), or evil-doer (e.g. pāpadhammaṃ, pāpadhammo, pāpadhammā).

c.                   Kamma, when translated, has been translated as work.

d.                  Nibbāna and its derivatives/combinations, when translated, has been translated as extinguishing.

e.                  Sabrahmacārī and sabrahmacārino are translated as "co-farer of holy-life" and brahmacariyaṃ and derivations as "faring the holy-life".

f.                    I translate both karuṇaṃ and anukampā (and their derivations) as compassion.  Karuṇaṃ is also translated as pitiably.

g.                  Ramaṇīyā and manoramā (and their derivatives) are both translated as delightful.

h.                  Gandha and derivatives have been translated as smell, scent, or fragrance.

i.                    Sukhumaṃ and derivatives have been translated as fine or subtle.

j.                    Terms related to “yoga” are translated as “bonds”.

k.                   Terms related to “gaccha” are translated as follows:

§  entered upon” (adhigacche, adhigaccheyya, nibbānamadhigantabbaṃ, nibbutiñcādhigacchatī),

§  “arrive” (adhigamma, agacchaṃ, agacchissaṃ, sakkāyādhigatā),

§  “went” (agamāsi),

§  “attain” (ajjhagamiṃ, ajjhagamā, bodhimajjhagamā, khayamajjhagā, samajjhaga, suddhimajjhagaṃ, suddhamajjhagā, suddhimajjhagamā),

§  “hard to attain” (duradhigamā),

§  “not attain” (cetosantimanajjhagaṃ, nādhigacchantī, nādhigacchantī”ti, nādhigaccheyya).

l.                    Terms related to “attha” are translated as follows:

§  “goal” (atthacintā, atthaṃ, atthato, atthavā, paṇḍitehatthadassibhi, paramatthavijānanaṃ, sadattho, sāmaññatthoti, uttamatthassa),

§  “reason” (catthāya, etamatthaṃ, imamatthaṃ, yadattho, yassatthāya),

§  “benefit” (atthaṃ, atthassāyaṃ, atthakāmā, atthakāmassa, atthantaro, atthapucchanaṃ, atthatthiyaṃ, atthopasaṃhitā, atthūpanāyikā, hetadatthāya, imamatthamabhāsisuṃ, janenattho, nipuṇatthadassī, susukhumanipuṇatthadassinā, tassatthā, tavattho, ubhayattha, ubhinnamatthaṃ),

§  “benefit-less” (tvevānatthasaṃhitaṃ),

§  “meaning” (alamatthavicintakaṃ, atthañca, atthaññū, atthañcopaparikkhati, dhammatthasahitaṃ),

§  “meaning-less” (niratthako, niratthakaṃ, mānatthe),

§  “desirous or non-desirous” (atthiko, anatthiko),

§  “use” (idamatthikaṃ),

§  “wish” (sukhattho),

§  without explicit translation (dhanatthaṃ, jīvikatthā, jīvikatthohaṃ, jīvitatthaṃ, yaññatthaṃ, yāpanatthaṃ).

2.         I am translating dhuta, dhutavādo, and related words as “Austerities”, rather than as “Ascetic Practices”, which is how most everybody else translates it.

3.         I have added the titles of following type to clarify who is speaking and to whom.  Some of them are based on the commentarial explanation while others are based on what I believe is taking place based on the context and the language of the verses.  I have also added closing quotes in the translations but not in the original Pāḷi text, and this is not always documented in the endnotes.

Ayoghara to his Father:

4.         Sometimes I have translated ca simultaneously as both and & too in the same verse, if it made better reading sense.  However, I must admit I have not been systematic in doing so.

5.         Another point the reader should keep in mind is that in Pāḷi, a sentence can cross the boundary of a verse and spill over into next verse or next several verses.  In such a case, please read several verses together to get the meaning.

6.         I have provided both Pāḷi text in Roman Diacritics and the English translation so it is easy for interested readers to compare them.

The verses are in general translated so that the padā (parts of the verses) and translations of them are located in the same place, as far as possible but not always.  For example, looking at V1:

Kappe ca satasahasse,                                               caturo ca asaṅkhiye;

pada a                                                                      pada b

Etthantare yaṃ caritaṃ,                                             sabbaṃ taṃ bodhipācanaṃ.

pada c                                                                      pada d

In this case, the translation is:

In a hundred thousand eons,                                    and four incalculables;

pada a                                                                      pada b

Whatever conducts I fared therein,               were all driven by enlightenment.

pada c                                                                      pada d

Here, the Pāḷi source and translation are matching up by pada so this is helpful for those interested in comparing translations, comparing source and translation, or simply learning Pāḷi in an applied context (as opposed to classroom setting).

However, many times this makes for an awkward translation and doesn’t retain the flair but that is the price one pays for fidelity to the received text.  To alleviate this, and especially when the translation was on the verge of becoming non-sensical, I have supplied additional words in square brackets [] and in rare cases, I have added a pronoun.  In very rare cases, I have reorganized the translation to bring out the intended meaning.

7.         A full Pāḷi-English glossary that provides both original and deconstructed Pāḷi terms and their English translations will help the reader understand how Pāḷi words are constructed and what each constituent word means.

8.         As far as the numbering of the suttā and the verses go, here is the scheme:

1.1       (1) Akitticariyā – Conduct of Akitti (Not Famous)

V1        “Kappe ca satasahasse, caturo ca asaṅkhiye;

Etthantare yaṃ caritaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ bodhipācanaṃ.

The bulleted list shows the <section>.<sutta> and the number following that in round brackets () shows the continuous sequential number of the sutta, irrespective of the section.  The verses are numbered continuously.  There are a total of 35 suttā and 356 verses in the Cariyāpiṭaka.

9.         I have added the meaning or translation of the Sutta name in round brackets () but the reader should keep in mind that these meanings or translations are highly conjectural and subjective.

10.     Since this is an English translation, all the references provided are to the contemporary English translations so that it’s easy for the reader to follow up the references and deepen their understanding.

11.     Copious information is provided in the endnotes and appendices for those readers curious about the background.  In the information quoted from DPPN, for the sake of brevity, references to Pāḷi sources have been removed (and replaced by references to contemporary English translations, as far as references can be tracked).  I have also added the verse cross-references in the DPPN info.  The DPPN source is from the online edition.

I have added the “Note:” information in the endnotes and appendices.

12.     “Appendix 2: Buddhist Path by Numbered Lists” contains all the numbered lists referenced in this book.  Readers are requested to consult it for any questions.

13.     A note on the punctuation and quotation style – I have chosen to keep all punctuation outside the quotation marks, so I have used the UK style (“.) rather than the US style (.”).

I hope this translation is helpful for those looking to obtain a flair, a pre-taste of what it must have been like to be freed from the defilements and be completely liberated.  If this translation inspires even one reader to live by these ideals, then this translation has served, indeed well-served, the purpose.


Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa

Veneration to the Blessed One, Arahant, Rightly Self-Enlightened

Khuddakanikāye – In the Minor Collection [1]

Cariyāpiṭakapāḷi Book of Basket of Conduct [2]

1. Akitivaggo – Section on Akitti

1.1              (1) Akitticariyā – Conduct of Akitti (Not Famous) [3]

V1               “Kappe ca satasahasse, caturo ca asaṅkhiye;

Etthantare yaṃ caritaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ bodhipācanaṃ.

“In a hundred thousand eons, and four incalculables;

Whatever conducts I fared therein, were all driven by [desire for] enlightenment.[4]

V2               “Atītakappe caritaṃ, ṭhapayitvā bhavābhave;

Imamhi kappe caritaṃ, pavakkhissaṃ suṇohi me.

“What conducts I fared in the previous eons, in existence after existence, keeping them aside;

What conducts I fared in this eon, I will recite, listen to me.

V3               “Yadā ahaṃ brahāraññe, suññe vipinakānane;

Ajjhogāhetvā [ajjhogahetvā (sī. syā.)] viharāmi, akitti nāma tāpaso.

“When I was in a great jungle, in empty woods and gardens;

Having entered I dwelt there, an ascetic named Akitti.

V4               “Tadā maṃ tapatejena, santatto tidivābhibhū;

Dhārento brāhmaṇavaṇṇaṃ, bhikkhāya maṃ upāgami.

“Then because of my ascetic powers, Lord of Tāvatiṃsa heated up;

Having taken the brāhmaṇa form, he came to me for begging. [5]

V5               “Pavanā ābhataṃ paṇṇaṃ, atelañca aloṇikaṃ;

Mama dvāre ṭhitaṃ disvā, sakaṭāhena ākiriṃ.

“Having brought the leaves from forest, without oil and salt;

Seeing someone standing on my door-step, I put it in [his] pot.

V6               “Tassa datvānahaṃ paṇṇaṃ, nikkujjitvāna bhājanaṃ;

Punesanaṃ jahitvāna, pāvisiṃ paṇṇasālakaṃ.

“Having given the leaves to him, having overturned the cooking pot;

Giving-up the desire [to go get leaves] again, I entered the leaf-hut.

V7               “Dutiyampi tatiyampi, upagañchi mamantikaṃ;

Akampito anolaggo, evamevamadāsahaṃ.

“Second time and third time too, he approached me;

Neither angry nor downcast, I gave again and again.

V8               “Na me tappaccayā atthi, sarīrasmiṃ vivaṇṇiyaṃ;

Pītisukhena ratiyā, vītināmemi taṃ divaṃ.

“Because of that, I don’t have discolored body;

Nights are rapturous and happy, I spend the day thus.

V9               “Yadi māsampi dvemāsaṃ, dakkhiṇeyyaṃ varaṃ labhe;

Akampito anolīno, dadeyyaṃ dānamuttamaṃ.

“Even for a month or two, if I found a worthy recipient, the highest;

Neither angry nor downcast, I gave the best of the giving.

V10           “Na tassa dānaṃ dadamāno, yasaṃ lābhañca patthayiṃ;

Sabbaññutaṃ patthayāno, tāni kammāni ācari”nti.

“I didn’t give to him [Sakka], aspiring for reputation or benefit;

Aspiring for the omniscience, I did those deeds”.

Akitticariyaṃ paṭhamaṃ. – Conduct of Akitti First.

1.2              (2) Saṅkhacariyā – Conduct of Saṅkha [6]

V11           “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, brāhmaṇo saṅkhasavhayo;

Mahāsamuddaṃ taritukāmo, upagacchāmi paṭṭanaṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, a brāhmaṇa named Saṅkha;

Desiring to cross over the ocean, I went to the [sea-]port.

V12           “Tatthaddasaṃ paṭipathe, sayambhuṃ aparājitaṃ;

Kantāraddhānaṃ paṭipannaṃ [kantāraddhānapaṭipannaṃ (sī. syā.)], tattāya kaṭhinabhūmiyā.

“There I saw on the other side of road, a Pacceka Buddha undefeated;

Walking on the difficult road, on hot & hard ground.

V13           “Tamahaṃ paṭipathe disvā, imamatthaṃ vicintayiṃ;

‘Idaṃ khettaṃ anuppattaṃ, puññakāmassa jantuno.

“There having seen him on the other side of road, I thought this;

‘Here is the field, for a being desirous of merits.

V14           “ ‘Yathā kassako puriso, khettaṃ disvā mahāgamaṃ;

Tattha bījaṃ na ropeti, na so dhaññena atthiko.

“ ‘Like a farmer, upon seeing a field, a great field;

Doesn’t plant the seed there, then he is not desirous for grains.

V15           “ ‘Evamevāhaṃ puññakāmo, disvā khettavaruttamaṃ;

Yadi tattha kāraṃ na karomi, nāhaṃ puññena atthiko.

“ ‘Thus I desirous of merits, having seen the highest and best of the fields;

If I don’t plant there, I am not desirous of merits.

V16           “ ‘Yathā amacco muddikāmo, rañño antepure jane;

Na deti tesaṃ dhanadhaññaṃ, muddito parihāyati.

“ ‘Like a minister desirous of authority from king, to the king’s people;

Doesn’t give them wealth and grains, the one desirous of authority perishes.

V17           “ ‘Evamevāhaṃ puññakāmo, vipulaṃ disvāna dakkhiṇaṃ;

Yadi tassa dānaṃ na dadāmi, parihāyissāmi puññato’.

“ ‘If I thus desirous of merits, having seen a worthy recipient;

Doesn’t give it to him, I, desirous of merits, will perish’.

V18           “Evāhaṃ cintayitvāna, orohitvā upāhanā;

Tassa pādāni vanditvā, adāsiṃ chattupāhanaṃ.

“Having thought like that, having taken off [my] footwear;

Having paid homage at his feet, I gave sun-shade and footwear to him.

V19           “Tenevāhaṃ sataguṇato, sukhumālo sukhedhito;

Api ca dānaṃ paripūrento, evaṃ tassa adāsaha”nti.

“Because of that I have hundred characteristics, I am delicate and well-nurtured;

I have completely fulfilled the Giving [perfection], having given to him”. [7]

Saṅkhacariyaṃ dutiyaṃ. – Conduct of Saṅkha Second.

1.3              (3) Kururājacariyā Conduct of Kururāja (King Kuru) [8]

V20           “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, indapatthe [indapatte (sī. ka.)] puruttame;

Rājā dhanañcayo nāma, kusale dasahupāgato.

“Again when in a past life I was, in Indapattha the best fortress city;

A king named Dhanañcaya, skillful and approaching ten [wholesome courses of action]. [9]

V21           “Kaliṅgaraṭṭhavisayā, brāhmaṇā upagañchu maṃ;

Āyācuṃ maṃ hatthināgaṃ, dhaññaṃ maṅgalasammataṃ.

“From the Kaliṅga country, brāhmaṇā approached me;

They asked me for the great elephant, lucky and renowned as auspicious. [10]

V22           “ ‘Avuṭṭhiko janapado, dubbhikkho chātako mahā;

Dadāhi pavaraṃ nāgaṃ, nīlaṃ añjanasavhayaṃ.

“ ‘The country is without rain, difficult to get the requisites, a great famine;

Give us the excellent great elephant, blue-black and named Añjana. [11]

V23           “ ‘Na me yācakamanuppatte, paṭikkhepo anucchavo;

Mā me bhijji samādānaṃ, dassāmi vipulaṃ gajaṃ’.

“ ‘When beggars approach me, turning them away isn’t proper for me;

May I not break the observance [of giving], I will give the giant elephant’. [12]

V24           “Nāgaṃ gahetvā soṇḍāya, bhiṅgāre [bhiṅkāre (sī.)] ratanāmaye;

Jalaṃ hatthe ākiritvā, brāhmaṇānaṃ adaṃ gajaṃ.

“Holding the great elephant by the trunk, and taking the jeweled water-jug;

Having poured water in hand, I gave elephant to the brāhmaṇā. [13]

V25           “Tassa nāge padinnamhi, amaccā etadabravuṃ;

‘Kiṃ nu tuyhaṃ varaṃ nāgaṃ, yācakānaṃ padassasi.

“Having given that elephant, the ministers spoke thus;

‘Why did you give the highest great elephant, to the beggars?

V26           “ ‘Dhaññaṃ maṅgalasampannaṃ, saṅgāmavijayuttamaṃ;

Tasmiṃ nāge padinnamhi, kiṃ te rajjaṃ karissati.

“ ‘Lucky and accomplisher of auspicious, the best winner of battles;

Having given the great elephant, how will you rule the kingdom’? [14]

V27           “ ‘Rajjampi me dade sabbaṃ, sarīraṃ dajjamattano;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā nāgaṃ adāsaha’ “nti.

“ ‘I will give away the entire kingdom, and give body of mine too;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave the great elephant’ ”.

Kururājacariyaṃ tatiyaṃ. – Conduct of Kururāja Third.

1.4              (4) Mahāsudassanacariyā – Conduct of Mahāsudassana (Sudassana the Great) [15]

V28           “Kusāvatimhi nagare, yadā āsiṃ mahīpati;

Mahāsudassano nāma, cakkavattī mahabbalo.

“In the city of Kusāvati, I was Lord of the Earth [King];

Named Mahāsudassana, a powerful world emperor.

V29           “Tatthāhaṃ divase tikkhattuṃ, ghosāpemi tahiṃ tahiṃ;

‘Ko kiṃ icchati pattheti, kassa kiṃ dīyatū dhanaṃ.

“There thrice in the day, I had this sounded forth here and there;

‘Who wishes or aspires for something? Who wants wealth?

V30           “ ‘Ko chātako ko tasito, ko mālaṃ ko vilepanaṃ;

Nānārattāni vatthāni, ko naggo paridahissati.

“ ‘Who is famished or thirsty? Who wants garland or unguents?

With various colored clothes, which naked one will dress up?

V31           “ ‘Ko pathe chattamādeti, kopāhanā mudū subhā’;

Iti sāyañca pāto ca, ghosāpemi tahiṃ tahiṃ.

“ ‘Who on the road will take sunshade, who will take shoes soft and beautiful’?

Thus in the evening and morning, I had it sounded forth here and there.

V32           “Na taṃ dasasu ṭhānesu, napi ṭhānasatesu vā;

Anekasataṭhānesu, paṭiyattaṃ yācake dhanaṃ.

“Not [just] in ten places, nor [even] in hundred places [only];

In many hundreds of places, I had wealth prepared for the beggars.

V33           “Divā vā yadi vā rattiṃ, yadi eti vanibbako;

Laddhā yadicchakaṃ bhogaṃ, pūrahatthova gacchati.

“Whether by day or by night, if someone in need came;

He gained whatever he wished for, he left with full hands.

V34           “Evarūpaṃ mahādānaṃ, adāsiṃ yāvajīvikaṃ;

Napāhaṃ dessaṃ dhanaṃ dammi, napi natthi nicayo mayi.

“That kind of great giving, I gave until I lived;

I did not give away the wealth because I hated it, nor did I not accumulate [wealth].

V35           “Yathāpi āturo nāma, rogato parimuttiyā;

Dhanena vejjaṃ tappetvā, rogato parimuccati.

“Like someone sick, to be free of sickness;

Satisfies the doctor with wealth, [and] becomes free of sickness.

V36           “Tathevāhaṃ jānamāno, paripūretumasesato;

Ūnamanaṃ pūrayituṃ, demi dānaṃ vanibbake;

Nirālayo apaccāso, sambodhimanupattiyā”ti.

“Knowing like that I, having completely fulfilled without remainder;

I have completely fulfilled the deficiency, I have given to those in need;

Homeless and fully ripe, I have reached self-enlightenment”.

Mahāsudassanacariyaṃ catutthaṃ. – Conduct of Mahāsudassana Fourth.

1.5              (5) Mahāgovindacariyā Conduct of Mahāgovinda (Govinda the Great) [16]

V37           “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, sattarājapurohito;

Pūjito naradevehi, mahāgovindabrāhmaṇo.

“Again when in a past life I was, a religious advisor to the seven kings;

Worshipped by Devā among men, [I was] Mahāgovinda brāhmaṇa.

V38           “Tadāhaṃ sattarajjesu, yaṃ me āsi upāyanaṃ;

Tena demi mahādānaṃ, akkhobbhaṃ [akkhobhaṃ (syā. kaṃ.)] sāgarūpamaṃ.

“Then what the seven kings, had given to me as gifts;

I gave that as great giving, imperturbable and vast like the sea. [17]

V39           “Na me dessaṃ dhanaṃ dhaññaṃ, napi natthi nicayo mayi;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā demi varaṃ dhana”nti.

“I did not hate wealth or grains, nor did I not accumulate [wealth];

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave the highest wealth”.

Mahāgovindacariyaṃ pañcamaṃ. – Conduct of Mahāgovinda Fifth.

1.6              (6) Nimirājacariyā – Conduct of Nimirāja (King Nimi) [18]

V40           “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, mithilāyaṃ puruttame;

Nimi nāma mahārājā, paṇḍito kusalatthiko.

“Again when in a past life I was, in Mithilā the best fortress city;

A great king named Nimi, wise and desirous of wholesome.

V41           “Tadāhaṃ māpayitvāna, catussālaṃ catummukhaṃ;

Tattha dānaṃ pavattesiṃ, migapakkhinarādinaṃ.

“Then I got made [measured], four sheds [each] with four doors;

There I did the giving, to animals-birds-men-others.

V42           “Acchādanañca sayanaṃ, annaṃ pānañca bhojanaṃ;

Abbocchinnaṃ karitvāna, mahādānaṃ pavattayiṃ.

“Clothes & beds, food, drinks and eatables too;

Having continuously provided, I did the great giving.

V43           “Yathāpi sevako sāmiṃ, dhanahetumupāgato;

Kāyena vācā manasā, ārādhanīyamesati.

“Like a servant approaching the boss, for getting the wealth;

Bodily, verbally and mentally [serves the boss], wishing to obtain [wealth].

V44           “Tathevāhaṃ sabbabhave, pariyesissāmi bodhijaṃ;

Dānena satte tappetvā, icchāmi bodhimuttama”nti.

“Like that in all becomings, I will search for enlightenment;

Having satisfied beings by giving, I wish for the best enlightenment”.

Nimirājacariyaṃ chaṭṭhaṃ. – Conduct of Nimirāja Sixth.

1.7              (7) Candakumāracariyā – Conduct of Candakumāra (Prince Moon) [19]

V45           “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, ekarājassa atrajo;

Nagare pupphavatiyā, kumāro candasavhayo.

“Again when in a past life I was, one born of the Ekarāja;

In Pupphavati city, a prince named Canda.

V46           “Tadāhaṃ yajanā mutto, nikkhanto yaññavāṭato;

Saṃvegaṃ janayitvāna, mahādānaṃ pavattayiṃ.

“Then freed from being sacrificed, I left the sacrifice place;

Deeply agitated, I did the great giving.

V47           “Nāhaṃ pivāmi khādāmi, napi bhuñjāmi bhojanaṃ;

Dakkhiṇeyye adatvāna, api chappañcarattiyo.

“Neither did I drink nor eat, nor did I partake of eatables;

Not having given donations to a worthy recipient, even for fifty-six nights. [20]

V48           “Yathāpi vāṇijo nāma, katvāna bhaṇḍasañcayaṃ;

Yattha lābho mahā hoti, tattha taṃ [tattha naṃ (sī.), tattha (ka.)] harati bhaṇḍakaṃ.

“Like a travelling salesman, having collected [trade] goods;

Where there are great gains to be made, there he takes the [trade] goods.

V49           “Tatheva sakabhuttāpi, pare dinnaṃ mahapphalaṃ;

Tasmā parassa dātabbaṃ, satabhāgo bhavissati.

“Like that giving what you have used, to others is of great fruit;

Therefore give to others, what you give will become hundred times.

V50           “Etamatthavasaṃ ñatvā, demi dānaṃ bhavābhave;

Na paṭikkamāmi dānato, sambodhimanupattiyā”ti.

“Knowing this, I gave in existence after existence;

I never departed from giving, I have reached self-enlightenment”.

Candakumāracariyaṃ sattamaṃ. – Conduct of Candakumāra Seventh.

1.8              (8) Sivirājacariyā – Conduct of Sivirāja (King Sivi) [21]

V51           “Ariṭṭhasavhaye nagare, sivināmāsi khattiyo;

Nisajja pāsādavare, evaṃ cintesahaṃ tadā.

“In the city named Ariṭṭha, [I was] a khattiya named Sivi;

Sitting on the top floor of the mansion, I was thinking thus.

V52           “ ‘Yaṃ kiñci mānusaṃ dānaṃ, adinnaṃ me na vijjati;

Yopi yāceyya maṃ cakkhuṃ, dadeyyaṃ avikampito’.

“ ‘Whatever is a human giving, I don’t see anything I haven’t given;

Whoever asks me for my eye, I will give without wavering’.

V53           “Mama saṅkappamaññāya, sakko devānamissaro;

Nisinno devaparisāya, idaṃ vacanamabravi.

“Understanding my intention, Sakka supreme among the Devā;

Sitting in the Devā Council, spoke these words.

V54           “ ‘Nisajja pāsādavare, sivirājā mahiddhiko;

Cintento vividhaṃ dānaṃ, adeyyaṃ so na passati.

“ ‘Sitting on the top floor of the mansion, King Sivi of great supernormal powers;

Thinking about various givings, sees none that he hasn’t given.

V55           “ ‘Tathaṃ nu vitathaṃ netaṃ, handa vīmaṃsayāmi taṃ;

Muhuttaṃ āgameyyātha, yāva jānāmi taṃ manaṃ’.

“ ‘Is it so or is it not so, lets investigate it;

The moment has come, to find out his mind’.

V56           “Pavedhamāno palitasiro, valigatto [valitagatto (sī.)] jarāturo;

Andhavaṇṇova hutvāna, rājānaṃ upasaṅkami.

“Trembling and grey-haired, with wrinkled limbs, distressed with old age;

Having become a blind person, he approached the king.

V57           “So tadā paggahetvāna, vāmaṃ dakkhiṇabāhu ca;

Sirasmiṃ añjaliṃ katvā, idaṃ vacanamabravi.

“Then he outstretched, his left and right hand too;

And having folded hands above his head, he spoke these words.

V58           “ ‘Yācāmi taṃ mahārāja, dhammika raṭṭhavaḍḍhana;

Tava dānaratā kitti, uggatā devamānuse.

“ ‘I beg of you O great king, righteous and increaser of country;

You are delighting in giving, your fame has risen-up among Devā and humans.

V59           “ ‘Ubhopi nettā nayanā, andhā upahatā mama;

Ekaṃ me nayanaṃ dehi, tvampi ekena yāpaya’.

“ ‘Both my eyes, are injured and have become blind;

Give me one of your eyes, you too keep going with one [eye]’.

V60           “Tassāhaṃ vacanaṃ sutvā, haṭṭho saṃviggamānaso;

Katañjalī vedajāto, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ.

“Having heard his words, overjoyed and with a deeply agitated mind;

With folded hands and happiness, I spoke these words.

V61           “ ‘Idānāhaṃ cintayitvāna, pāsādato idhāgato;

Tvaṃ mama cittamaññāya, nettaṃ yācitumāgato.

“ ‘Here I was thinking, having gone to the mansion;

You knowing my mind, came begging for [my] eyes.

V62           “ ‘Aho me mānasaṃ siddhaṃ, saṅkappo paripūrito;

Adinnapubbaṃ dānavaraṃ, ajja dassāmi yācake.

“ ‘O my thinking has been accomplished, my intention is fulfilled;

Never given before, the highest giving, I will give today to the beggar. [22]

V63           “ ‘Ehi sivaka uṭṭhehi, mā dandhayi mā pavedhayi;

Ubhopi nayanaṃ dehi, uppāṭetvā vaṇibbake’.

“ ‘Come Sivaka getup, don’t be sluggish and don’t tremble;

Give away both eyes, to the one in need who has come’.

V64           “Tato so codito mayhaṃ, sivako vacanaṃ karo;

Uddharitvāna pādāsi, tālamiñjaṃva yācake.

“Thus urged by me, Sivaka did my words;

Having taken out he gave [my eyes], to the shaking beggar.

V65           “Dadamānassa dentassa, dinnadānassa me sato;

Cittassa aññathā natthi, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā.

“Desiring to give, while giving, and having given;

My mind was not otherwise, because it was for enlightenment.

V66           “Na me dessā ubho cakkhū, attā na me na dessiyo;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā cakkhuṃ adāsaha”nti.

“I didn’t hate my eyes, I didn’t hate myself either;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave the eyes”.

Sivirājacariyaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ. – Conduct of Sivirāja Eighth.

1.9              (9) Vessantaracariyā – Conduct of Vessantara (Merchant Lane Born) [23]

V67           “Yā me ahosi janikā, phussatī [phusatī (sī.)] nāma khattiyā;

Sā atītāsu jātīsu, sakkassa mahesī piyā.

“One who was my mother, was a khattiyā named Phussatī;

In a previous life, she was the chief queen of Sakka, a dear one.

V68           “Tassā āyukkhayaṃ ñatvā, devindo etadabravi;

‘Dadāmi te dasa vare, varabhadde yadicchasi’.

“Having known that her lifespan was ending, king of the Devā spoke thus;

‘I give you ten boons, O Good one, boons as you wish’.

V69           “Evaṃ vuttā ca sā devī, sakkaṃ punidamabravi;

‘Kiṃ nu me aparādhatthi, kiṃ nu dessā ahaṃ tava;

Rammā cāvesi maṃ ṭhānā, vātova dharaṇīruhaṃ’.

“Thus spoken to that devī, again spoke to Sakka thus;

‘What is my fault, why do you hate me so;

I will pass away from delightful state, like wind [uprooting trees] from earth’. [24]

V70           “Evaṃ vutto ca so sakko, puna tassidamabravi;

‘Na ceva te kataṃ pāpaṃ, na ca me tvaṃsi appiyā.

“Thus spoken to Sakka, again spoke to her thus;

‘Neither have you done any ill, nor are you not dear to me. [25]

V71           “ ‘Ettakaṃyeva te āyu, cavanakālo bhavissati;

Paṭiggaṇha mayā dinne, vare dasa varuttame’.

“ ‘So much was your lifespan, it will be [soon] passing-away time;

Accept what I have given boons, the ten best boons’.

V72           “Sakkena sā dinnavarā, tuṭṭhahaṭṭhā pamoditā;

Mamaṃ abbhantaraṃ katvā, phussatī dasa vare varī.

“Sakka gave her the best boons, [she was] satisfied-overjoyed and rejoicing;

Having conceived me, Phussatī was blessed with ten boons. [26]

V73           “Tato cutā sā phussatī, khattiye upapajjatha;

Jetuttaramhi nagare, sañjayena samāgami.

“Having passed-away from there, Phussatī was born to a khattiya;

In Jetuttara city, she became partner of Sañjaya [the king].

V74           “Yadāhaṃ phussatiyā kucchiṃ, okkanto piyamātuyā;

Mama tejena me mātā, sadā dānaratā ahu.

“While I entered the womb of Phussatī, my dear mother;

Because of my power my mother, always delighted in giving.

V75           “Adhane āture jiṇṇe, yācake addhike [pathike (ka.)] jane;

Samaṇe brāhmaṇe khīṇe, deti dānaṃ akiñcane.

“Poor sick and old, beggars, travellers, and other people;

Decayed ascetics and brāhmaṇā, [she] gave to possession-less people.

V76           “Dasa māse dhārayitvāna, karonte puraṃ padakkhiṇaṃ;

Vessānaṃ vīthiyā majjhe, janesi phussatī mamaṃ.

“Having borne me for ten months, [while] circumambulating the fortress city;

In the middle of the Merchant Lane, Phussatī gave birth to me.

V77           “Na mayhaṃ mattikaṃ nāmaṃ, napi pettikasambhavaṃ;

Jātettha vessavīthiyā, tasmā vessantaro ahu.

“Neither was I named after my mother, nor after my father;

I was born in the Merchant Lane, that’s why I was named Vessantara.

V78           “Yadāhaṃ dārako homi, jātiyā aṭṭhavassiko;

Tadā nisajja pāsāde, dānaṃ dātuṃ vicintayiṃ.

“When I was a young child, eight years old;

Then sitting in the mansion, I thought about giving.

V79           “ ‘Hadayaṃ dadeyyaṃ cakkhuṃ, maṃsampi rudhirampi ca;

Dadeyyaṃ kāyaṃ sāvetvā, yadi koci yācaye mamaṃ’.

“ ‘Heart I will give, I will give eyes, meat and blood too;

I announce I will give my body, if somebody begs me for it’.

V80           “Sabhāvaṃ cintayantassa, akampitamasaṇṭhitaṃ;

Akampi tattha pathavī, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“Having sincerely thought like that, unwavering-unestablished;

Then the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [27]

V81           “Anvaddhamāse pannarase, puṇṇamāse uposathe;

Paccayaṃ nāgamāruyha, dānaṃ dātuṃ upāgamiṃ.

“Fortnightly on the fifteenth, on the full moon uposatha;

Mounting the great elephant Paccaya, I went around giving. [28]

V82           “Kaliṅgaraṭṭhavisayā, brāhmaṇā upagañchu maṃ;

Ayācuṃ maṃ hatthināgaṃ, dhaññaṃ maṅgalasammataṃ.

“From the Kaliṅga country, brāhmaṇā approached me;

They asked me for the great elephant, lucky and renowned as auspicious. [29]

V83           “Avuṭṭhiko janapado, dubbhikkho chātako mahā;

Dadāhi pavaraṃ nāgaṃ, sabbasetaṃ gajuttamaṃ.

“The country is without rain, difficult to get the requisites, a great famine;

Give us the excellent great elephant, the all-white, the best elephant. [30]

V84           “Dadāmi na vikampāmi, yaṃ maṃ yācanti brāhmaṇā;

Santaṃ nappatigūhāmi [nappatiguyhāmi (sī. ka.)], dāne me ramate mano.

“I gave, I did not waver, as brāhmaṇā begged of me;

I did not conceal [anything], my mind delighted in giving.

V85           “Na me yācakamanuppatte, paṭikkhepo anucchavo;

‘Mā me bhijji samādānaṃ, dassāmi vipulaṃ gajaṃ’.

“When beggars approach me, turning them away isn’t proper for me;

‘May I not break the observance [of giving], I will give the giant elephant’. [31]

V86           “Nāgaṃ gahetvā soṇḍāya, bhiṅgāre ratanāmaye;

Jalaṃ hatthe ākiritvā, brāhmaṇānaṃ adaṃ gajaṃ.

“Holding the great elephant by the trunk, and taking the jeweled water-jug;

Having poured water in hand, I gave elephant to the brāhmaṇā. [32]

V87           “Punāparaṃ dadantassa, sabbasetaṃ gajuttamaṃ;

Tadāpi pathavī kampi, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“Again in the past when I gave, the all-white, the best elephant;

Then too the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [33]

V88           “Tassa nāgassa dānena, sivayo kuddhā samāgatā;

Pabbājesuṃ sakā raṭṭhā, ‘vaṅkaṃ gacchatu pabbataṃ’.

“Because of giving away that great elephant, angry Sivī people got together;

Get out of our country, ‘Go away to the Vaṅka mountain’. [34]

V89           “Tesaṃ nicchubhamānānaṃ, akampitthamasaṇṭhitaṃ;

Mahādānaṃ pavattetuṃ, ekaṃ varamayācisaṃ.

“There conceit-less, unwavering-unestablished;

I wanted to do a great giving, I asked for only one boon.

V90           “Yācitā sivayo sabbe, ekaṃ varamadaṃsu me;

Sāvayitvā kaṇṇabheriṃ, mahādānaṃ dadāmahaṃ.

“When I begged the Sivī people, they gave me one boon;

I had it announced with the kettle-drum, I will give the great giving.

V91           “Athettha vattatī saddo, tumulo bheravo mahā;

Dānenimaṃ nīharanti, puna dānaṃ dadātayaṃ.

“As this word spread, there was a pandemonium-frightful and great;

The giving for which I was driven out, I gave such giving again.

V92           “Hatthiṃ asse rathe datvā, dāsiṃ dāsaṃ gavaṃ dhanaṃ;

Mahādānaṃ daditvāna, nagarā nikkhamiṃ tadā.

“Having given elephants horses chariots, female-male servants cows wealth;

Having given the great giving, I left the city then.

V93           “Nikkhamitvāna nagarā, nivattitvā vilokite;

Tadāpi pathavī kampi, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“Having left the city, I stopped and looked back;

Then too the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [35]

V94           “Catuvāhiṃ rathaṃ datvā, ṭhatvā cātummahāpathe;

Ekākiyo adutiyo, maddideviṃ idamabraviṃ.

“Having given the four-horsed chariot, I stood at the highway junction;

Solitary, without a second, I spoke to Maddidevi thus.

V95           “ ‘Tvaṃ maddi kaṇhaṃ gaṇhāhi, lahukā esā kaniṭṭhikā;

Ahaṃ jāliṃ gahessāmi, garuko bhātiko hi so’.

“ ‘Maddi you carry Kaṇha, who is light and young;

I will carry Jāli, the elder brother [of Kaṇhājina]’. [36]

V96           “Padumaṃ puṇḍarīkaṃva, maddī kaṇhājinaggahī;

Ahaṃ suvaṇṇabimbaṃva, jāliṃ khattiyamaggahiṃ.

“Like [carrying] a red or white lotus, Maddi carried Kaṇhājina;

I carried Jāli the khattiya, who looked like a golden image.

V97           “Abhijātā sukhumālā, khattiyā caturo janā;

Visamaṃ samaṃ akkamantā, vaṅkaṃ gacchāma pabbataṃ.

“Well-born delicate ones, the four khattiyā people;

Walking on the uneven-even [path], we were going to the Vaṅka mountain.

V98           “Ye keci manujā enti, anumagge paṭippathe;

Maggante paṭipucchāma, ‘kuhiṃ vaṅkanta [vaṅkata (sī.)] pabbato’.

“Whatever humans, we found on the path;

We asked them, ‘Where is the Vaṅka mountain’? [37]

V99           “Te tattha amhe passitvā, karuṇaṃ giramudīrayuṃ;

Dukkhaṃ te paṭivedenti, dūre vaṅkantapabbato.

“They then having seen us, compassionately told us;

They reported unhappily, far is the Vaṅka mountain. [38]

V100       “Yadi passanti pavane, dārakā phaline dume;

Tesaṃ phalānaṃ hetumhi, uparodanti dārakā.

“If children saw in the forest, trees laden with fruit;

To get those fruits, the children cried. [39]

V101       “Rodante dārake disvā, ubbiddhā [ubbiggā (syā. kaṃ.)] vipulā dumā;

Sayamevoṇamitvāna, upagacchanti dārake.

“Seeing the crying children, anxiously the giant trees;

By themselves they bent down, to the level of the children.

V102       “Idaṃ acchariyaṃ disvā, abbhutaṃ lomahaṃsanaṃ;

Sāhukāraṃ [sādhukāraṃ (sabbattha)] pavattesi, maddī sabbaṅgasobhanā.

“Having seen this marvel, unparalleled and hair-raising;

‘Sādhu’ was said by Maddī, the one with all limbs adorned. [40]

V103       “Accheraṃ vata lokasmiṃ, abbhutaṃ lomahaṃsanaṃ;

Vessantarassa tejena, sayamevoṇatā dumā.

“This was a marvel in the world, unparalleled and hair-raising;

By the power of Vessantara, the trees bent down by themselves.

V104       “Saṅkhipiṃsu pathaṃ yakkhā, anukampāya dārake;

Nikkhantadivaseneva [nikkhantadivaseyeva (sī.)], cetaraṭṭhamupāgamuṃ.

“Then the Yakkhā shortened the path, compassionate for the children;

On the day they left itself, they approached the Ceta country.

V105       “Saṭṭhirājasahassāni, tadā vasanti mātule;

Sabbe pañjalikā hutvā, rodamānā upāgamuṃ.

“Sixty thousand kings, then living in my mother’s place;

All of them with folded hands, approached me crying.

V106       “Tattha vattetvā sallāpaṃ, cetehi cetaputtehi;

Te tato nikkhamitvāna, vaṅkaṃ agamu pabbataṃ.

“Having discussed there, with Cetā and Cetaputtā too;

Having left from there, they came to the Vaṅka mountain.

V107       “Āmantayitvā devindo, vissakammaṃ [visukammaṃ (ka.)] mahiddhikaṃ;

Assamaṃ sukataṃ rammaṃ, paṇṇasālaṃ sumāpaya.

“Then the king of the Devā addressed, Vissakamma of great supernormal power;

Make a well-built delightful ashram, a leaf-hut well-proportioned. [41]

V108       “Sakkassa vacanaṃ sutvā, vissakammo mahiddhiko;

Assamaṃ sukataṃ rammaṃ, paṇṇasālaṃ sumāpayi.

“Having heard the word of Sakka, Vissakamma of great supernormal powers;

Made a well-built delightful ashram, a leaf-hut well-proportioned.

V109       “Ajjhogāhetvā pavanaṃ, appasaddaṃ nirākulaṃ;

Caturo janā mayaṃ tattha, vasāma pabbatantare.

“Having entered the forest, quiet and stress-free;

We four people, lived there between the mountains.

V110       “Ahañca maddidevī ca, jālī kaṇhājinā cubho;

Aññamaññaṃ sokanudā, vasāma assame tadā.

“I and Maddidevī too, both Jālī and Kaṇhājinā too;

Dispeller of sorrows for each other, we lived in that ashram.

V111       “Dārake anurakkhanto, asuñño homi assame;

Maddī phalaṃ āharitvā, poseti sā tayo jane.

“While protecting the children, I was not alone [idle] in the ashram;

Maddī having brought the fruits, she nourished the three of us.

V112       “Pavane vasamānassa, addhiko maṃ upāgami;

Āyāci puttake mayhaṃ, jāliṃ kaṇhājinaṃ cubho.

“While we were living in the forest, a traveler approached me;

He begged for my children, both Jālī and Kaṇhājinā too.

V113       “Yācakaṃ upagataṃ disvā, hāso me upapajjatha;

Ubho putte gahetvāna, adāsiṃ brāhmaṇe tadā.

“Having seen a beggar come, luster arose in me;

Having taken both children, I gave them to the brāhmaṇa.

V114       “Sake putte cajantassa, jūjake brāhmaṇe yadā;

Tadāpi pathavī kampi, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“When I gave away my own children, to the Jūjaka brāhmaṇa;

Then too the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [42]

V115       “Punadeva sakko oruyha, hutvā brāhmaṇasannibho;

Āyāci maṃ maddideviṃ, sīlavantiṃ patibbataṃ.

“Then again Sakka came down, resembling a brāhmaṇa;

He begged for Maddidevi, a virtuous and faithful wife.

V116       “Maddiṃ hatthe gahetvāna, udakañjali pūriya;

Pasannamanasaṅkappo, tassa maddiṃ adāsahaṃ.

“Having taken Maddi by hand, and filling my hand with water;

With a glad mind and intention, I gave Maddi to him.

V117       “Maddiyā dīyamānāya, gagane devā pamoditā;

Tadāpi pathavī kampi, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“When I gave away Maddi, Devā rejoiced in the sky;

Then too the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [43]

V118       “Jāliṃ kaṇhājinaṃ dhītaṃ, maddideviṃ patibbataṃ;

Cajamāno na cintesiṃ, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā.

“Jāli, daughter Kaṇhājina, Maddidevi the faithful wife;

I didn’t think before giving them up, because it was for enlightenment. [44]

V119       “Na me dessā ubho puttā, maddidevī na dessiyā;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā piye adāsahaṃ.

“I didn’t hate either of my children, I didn’t hate Maddidevī;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave away the dear ones . [45]

V120       “Punāparaṃ brahāraññe, mātāpitusamāgame;

Karuṇaṃ paridevante, sallapante sukhaṃ dukhaṃ.

“Again in the great jungle, [we were] united with [my] mother-father;

Lamenting pitiably, we discussed our happiness and suffering.

V121       “Hirottappena garunā [garunaṃ (syā. ka.)], ubhinnaṃ upasaṅkami;

Tadāpi pathavī kampi, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“With a great sense of shame and restlessness, both [mother-father] approached;

Then too the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [46]

V122       “Punāparaṃ brahāraññā, nikkhamitvā sañātibhi;

Pavisāmi puraṃ rammaṃ, jetuttaraṃ puruttamaṃ.

“Again in past the great jungle, having left it with relatives;

I entered the delightful fortress, Jetuttara the best fortress city.

V123       “Ratanāni satta vassiṃsu, mahāmegho pavassatha;

Tadāpi pathavī kampi, sineruvanavaṭaṃsakā.

“Seven kinds of jewels rained down, the great cloud rained down;

Then too the Earth shook, Meru mountain-and-forests too. [47]

V124       “Acetanāyaṃ pathavī, aviññāya sukhaṃ dukhaṃ;

Sāpi dānabalā mayhaṃ, sattakkhattuṃ pakampathā”ti.

“The non-living earth, not knowing happiness and suffering;

She too because of my power of giving, shook seven times”.

Vessantaracariyaṃ navamaṃ. – Conduct of Vessantara Ninth.

1.10          (10) Sasapaṇḍitacariyā – Conduct of Sasapaṇḍita (Wise Rabbit) [48]

V125       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, sasako pavanacārako;

Tiṇapaṇṇasākaphalabhakkho, paraheṭhanavivajjito.

“Again when in a past life I was, a rabbit dwelling in the forest;

Eater of grass-leaves-vegetables-fruits, forsaking injuring others.

V126       “Makkaṭo ca siṅgālo ca, suttapoto cahaṃ tadā;

Vasāma ekasāmantā, sāyaṃ pāto ca dissare [sāyaṃ pāto padissare (ka.)].

“Monkey and jackal too, otter and myself too;

We lived in the same place, seeing each other evening and morning.

V127       “Ahaṃ te anusāsāmi, kiriye kalyāṇapāpake;

‘Pāpāni parivajjetha, kalyāṇe abhinivissatha’.

“I used to teach them, about actions-wholesome and evil;

‘Forsake doing any evil, get established in doing wholesome’. [49]

V128       “Uposathamhi divase, candaṃ disvāna pūritaṃ;

Etesaṃ tattha ācikkhiṃ, divaso ajjuposatho.

“On the uposatha day, seeing the full moon;

I told them there, today’s the uposatha day. [50]

V129       “Dānāni paṭiyādetha, dakkhiṇeyyassa dātave;

Datvā dānaṃ dakkhiṇeyye, upavassathuposathaṃ.

“Having prepared donation, we should give it to a worthy recipient;

Having given to the worthy recipient, we will observe the uposatha. [51]

V130       “Te me sādhūti vatvāna, yathāsatti yathābalaṃ;

Dānāni paṭiyādetvā, dakkhiṇeyyaṃ gavesisuṃ [gavesayyuṃ (ka.)].

“They said ‘Sadhu’, we will do according to ability and strength;

Having prepared the donation, they sought a worthy recipient.

V131       “Ahaṃ nisajja cintesiṃ, dānaṃ dakkhiṇanucchavaṃ;

‘Yadihaṃ labhe dakkhiṇeyyaṃ, kiṃ me dānaṃ bhavissati.

“I thought while sitting down, what is a suitable offering to give;

‘If I gain a worthy recipient, what will be my giving?

V132       “ ‘Na me atthi tilā muggā, māsā vā taṇḍulā ghataṃ;

Ahaṃ tiṇena yāpemi, na sakkā tiṇa dātave.

“ ‘I don’t have sesame or mung beans, nor other beans, rice or ghee;

I keep going on grass, I cannot give grass [as offering].

V133       “ ‘Yadi koci eti dakkhiṇeyyo, bhikkhāya mama santike;

Dajjāhaṃ sakamattānaṃ, na so tuccho gamissati’.

“ ‘If a worthy recipient, comes begging to me;

I will give myself, he shouldn’t go empty[-handed]’.

V134       “Mama saṅkappamaññāya, sakko brāhmaṇavaṇṇinā;

Āsayaṃ me upāgacchi, dānavīmaṃsanāya me.

“Understanding my intention, Sakka in the brāhmaṇa form;

Came to my rabbit-warren, to investigate my giving.

V135       “Tamahaṃ disvāna santuṭṭho, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ;

‘Sādhu khosi anuppatto, ghāsahetu mamantike.

“Having seen him I was satisfied, I spoke these words;

‘Good someone has come, for food to me.

V136       “ ‘Adinnapubbaṃ dānavaraṃ, ajja dassāmi te ahaṃ;

Tuvaṃ sīlaguṇūpeto, ayuttaṃ te paraheṭhanaṃ.

“ ‘Never given before, the highest giving, today I will give to you;

You are with virtues arisen, you are not yoked to injuring others. [52]

V137       “ ‘Ehi aggiṃ padīpehi, nānākaṭṭhe samānaya;

Ahaṃ pacissamattānaṃ, pakkaṃ tvaṃ bhakkhayissasi’.

“ ‘Come, light up the fire, by bringing various woods;

I will cook myself, when I am cooked you can eat me’.

V138       “ ‘Sādhū’ti so haṭṭhamano, nānākaṭṭhe samānayi;

Mahantaṃ akāsi citakaṃ, katvā aṅgāragabbhakaṃ.

“ ‘Sādhū’ he said, overjoyed, he brought various woods;

He made a great pyre, having placed an ember inside.

V139       “Aggiṃ tattha padīpesi, yathā so khippaṃ mahā bhave;

Phoṭetvā rajagate gatte, ekamantaṃ upāvisiṃ.

“Thus fire was started, quickly it became great;

Having shaken the dusty limbs, he sat down on one side. [53]

V140       “Yadā mahākaṭṭhapuñjo, āditto dhamadhamāyati [dhumadhumāyati (sī.), dhamamāyati (ka.)];

Taduppatitvā papatiṃ, majjhe jālasikhantare.

“When the great heap of wood, was burning making hissing sounds;

Having jumped up I fell, in the middle of the crest of the flame.

V141       “Yathā sītodakaṃ nāma, paviṭṭhaṃ yassa kassaci;

Sameti darathapariḷāhaṃ, assādaṃ deti pīti ca.

“Just like the cool water, having entered it;

Pain and burning subsides, giving a taste of rapture.

V142       “Tatheva jalitaṃ aggiṃ, paviṭṭhassa mamaṃ tadā;

Sabbaṃ sameti darathaṃ, yathā sītodakaṃ viya.

“Like that the fire burning there, which I had entered then;

Subsided all my pain and burning, like [drenched in] cool water.

V143       “Chaviṃ cammaṃ maṃsaṃ nhāruṃ, aṭṭhiṃ hadayabandhanaṃ;

Kevalaṃ sakalaṃ kāyaṃ, brāhmaṇassa adāsaha”nti.

“Outer-skin, inner-skin, meat and muscles, bones, heart-meat;

The entire body, I gave to the brāhmaṇa”.

Sasapaṇḍitacariyaṃ dasamaṃ. – Conduct of Sasapaṇḍita Tenth.

Akittivaggo paṭhamo. – Akitti Section First.


Akittibrāhmaṇo saṅkho, kururājā dhanañcayo;

Mahāsudassano rājā, mahāgovindabrāhmaṇo.

Nimi candakumāro ca, sivi vessantaro saso;

Ahameva tadā āsiṃ, yo te dānavare adā.

Ete dānaparikkhārā, ete dānassa pāramī;

Jīvitaṃ yācake datvā, imaṃ pārami pūrayiṃ.

Bhikkhāya upagataṃ disvā, sakattānaṃ pariccajiṃ;

Dānena me samo natthi, esā me dānapāramīti.

Therefore said [contents]

Akitti-brāhmaṇa Saṅkha, Kururājā Dhanañcaya;

Mahāsudassana King, Mahāgovinda-brāhmaṇa.

Nimi Candakumāra too, Sivi Vessantara Sasa;

I myself was them, those who gave the highest giving.

This was the requisite for giving, this was the perfection of giving;

Giving life away to the one who begged for it, I fulfilled this perfection.

Seeing a beggar going for begging, I gave-up myself;

There was no one equal to me in giving, this was my perfection of giving.

Dānapāraminiddeso niṭṭhito. – The Exposition on Perfection of Giving is finished.


2. Hatthināgavaggo – Section on Hatthināga

2.1              (11) Mātuposakacariyā – Conduct of Mātuposaka (Helper of Mother) [54]

V144       “Yadā ahosiṃ pavane, kuñjaro mātuposako;

Na tadā atthi mahiyā, guṇena mama sādiso.

“When I was an elephant in the forest, caretaker of [my] mother;

There was no one then on the earth, equal to me in virtues.

V145       “Pavane disvā vanacaro, rañño maṃ paṭivedayi;

‘Tavānucchavo mahārāja, gajo vasati kānane.

“Having seen me in the forest, a forest-dweller reported me to the king;

‘Suitable for you, O Great King, an elephant lives in the garden.

V146       “ ‘Na tassa parikkhāyattho, napi āḷakakāsuyā;

Saha gahite [samaṃ gahite (sī.)] soṇḍāya, sayameva idhehi’ti.

“ ‘Neither do you need a trench, nor a stake-pit;

If you [just] hold him by his trunk, by himself he will [come] here’. [55]

V147       “Tassa taṃ vacanaṃ sutvā, rājāpi tuṭṭhamānaso;

Pesesi hatthidamakaṃ, chekācariyaṃ susikkhitaṃ.

“Having heard his words, king was mentally satisfied;

He sent an elephant trainer, a skillful teacher, well-trained.

V148       “Gantvā so hatthidamako, addasa padumassare;

Bhisamuḷālaṃ [bhisamūlaṃ (ka.)] uddharantaṃ, yāpanatthāya mātuyā.

“Having gone that elephant-trainer, saw [elephant] in the lotus lake;

Drawing out the lotus-stalks by root, to feed his mother.

V149       “Viññāya me sīlaguṇaṃ, lakkhaṇaṃ upadhārayi;

‘Ehi puttā’ti patvāna, mama soṇḍāya aggahi.

“Knowing me to be virtuous, considering the marks on me;

Having said ‘Come son’, he held me by the trunk.

V150       “Yaṃ me tadā pākatikaṃ, sarīrānugataṃ balaṃ;

Ajja nāgasahassānaṃ, balena samasādisaṃ.

“I could have freed myself then, by my bodily strength;

Like a thousand great elephants, I had that much strength.

V151       “Yadihaṃ tesaṃ pakuppeyyaṃ, upetānaṃ gahaṇāya maṃ;

Paṭibalo bhave tesaṃ, yāva rajjampi mānusaṃ.

“If I had become angry with them, those who had come to take me;

Competent I was [to overcome] them, all humans of the kingdom.

V152       “Api cāhaṃ sīlarakkhāya, sīlapāramipūriyā;

Na karomi citte aññathattaṃ, pakkhipantaṃ mamāḷake.

“I was protecting the virtue, fulfilling the perfection of virtue;

I did not let my mind alter, even while locked up. [56]

V153       “Yadi te maṃ tattha koṭṭeyyuṃ, pharasūhi tomarehi ca;

Neva tesaṃ pakuppeyyaṃ, sīlakhaṇḍabhayā mamā”ti.

“If they even pound me, with roughly and lances too;

I would not get angry with them, I was afraid of breaking the virtue”.

Mātuposakacariyaṃ paṭhamaṃ. – Conduct of Mātuposaka First.

2.2              (12) Bhūridattacariyā – Conduct of Bhūridatta (Wise Datta) [57]

V154       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, bhūridatto mahiddhiko;

Virūpakkhena mahāraññā, devalokamagañchahaṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, Bhūridatta of great supernormal powers;

With the Great King Virūpakkha, I came to the Deva World.

V155       “Tattha passitvāhaṃ deve, ekantaṃ sukhasamappite;

Taṃ saggagamanatthāya, sīlabbataṃ samādiyiṃ.

“There having seen the Devā, who were completely given to happiness;

To go to that heaven, I undertook observance of the precepts.

V156       “Sarīrakiccaṃ katvāna, bhutvā yāpanamattakaṃ;

Caturo aṅge adhiṭṭhāya, semi vammikamuddhani.

“Having done bodily needs, having eaten what was necessary;

Strongly determined in four limbs, I lay-down on top of the ant-hill. [58]

V157       “Chaviyā cammena maṃsena, nahāruaṭṭhikehi vā;

Yassa etena karaṇīyaṃ, dinnaṃyeva harātu so.

“Outer-skin, inner-skin, meat, muscles, or bones;

Whatever you can use, I give it, take it away. [59]

V158       “Saṃsito akataññunā, ālampāyano [ālambaṇo (sī.)] mamaggahi;

Peḷāya pakkhipitvāna, kīḷeti maṃ tahiṃ tahiṃ.

“Being an ingrate one, Ālampāyana carried me away;

Having locked me in the basket, he made me do shows here and there.

V159       “Peḷāya pakkhipantepi, sammaddantepi pāṇinā;

Ālampāyane [ālambaṇe (sī.)] na kuppāmi, sīlakhaṇḍabhayā mama.

“Locked in the basket, fully tamed by beings;

I did not get angry at Ālampāyana, I was afraid of breaking the virtue.

V160       “Sakajīvitapariccāgo, tiṇato lahuko mama;

Sīlavītikkamo mayhaṃ, pathavīuppatanaṃ viya.

“Completely giving away my own life, was light like the grass to me;

Transgressing the virtues, was like earth shaking up. [60]

V161       “Nirantaraṃ jātisataṃ, cajeyyaṃ mama jīvitaṃ;

Neva sīlaṃ pabhindeyyaṃ, catuddīpāna hetupi.

“Continuously for hundred lives, I would keep giving-up my life;

I would not break the virtue, not even for [kingdom of] four continents.

V162       “Api cāhaṃ sīlarakkhāya, sīlapāramipūriyā;

Na karomi citte aññathattaṃ, pakkhipantampi peḷake”ti.

“I was protecting the virtue, fulfilling the perfection of virtue;

I did not let my mind alter, even while locked-up in the basket”. [61]

Bhūridattacariyaṃ dutiyaṃ. – Conduct of Bhūridatta Second.

2.3              (13) Campeyyanāgacariyā – Conduct of Campeyyanāga (Snake of Campa) [62]

V163       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, campeyyako mahiddhiko;

Tadāpi dhammiko āsiṃ, sīlabbatasamappito.

“Again when in a past life I was, Campeyya of great supernormal powers;

Then too I was a dhamma-follower, fully given to observing the precepts.

V164       “Tadāpi maṃ dhammacāriṃ, upavutthaṃ uposathaṃ;

Ahituṇḍiko gahetvāna, rājadvāramhi kīḷati.

“Then too I was a dhamma-farer, I observed the uposatha;

Having caught me, a snake-charmer, made me do show at the palace-door. [63]

V165       “Yaṃ yaṃ so vaṇṇaṃ cintayi, nīlaṃva pītalohitaṃ;

Tassa cittānuvattanto, homi cintitasannibho.

“As he thought [my] color should be, blue-black or red-yellow;

Following his mind, I changed [my color] accordingly.

V166       “Thalaṃ kareyyamudakaṃ, udakampi thalaṃ kare;

Yadihaṃ tassa pakuppeyyaṃ, khaṇena chārikaṃ kare.

“I could turn solid ground into water, [and] water into solid ground;

If I had gotten angry at him, I could have turned him to ashes in a moment.

V167       “Yadi cittavasī hessaṃ, parihāyissāmi sīlato;

Sīlena parihīnassa, uttamattho na sijjhati.

“If I had followed my mind, my virtue would have perished;

Devoid of virtue, I could not accomplish the best goal.

V168       “Kāmaṃ bhijjatuyaṃ kāyo, idheva vikirīyatu;

Neva sīlaṃ pabhindeyyaṃ, vikirante bhusaṃ viyā”ti.

“Willingly let this body breakup, let it scatter here itself;

I would not break the virtue, [even] if scattered like chaff”.

Campeyyanāgacariyaṃ tatiyaṃ. – Conduct of Campeyyanāga Third.

2.4              (14) Cūḷabodhicariyā – Conduct of Cūḷabodhi (Bodhi the Young) [64]

V169       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, cūḷabodhi susīlavā;

Bhavaṃ disvāna bhayato, nekkhammaṃ abhinikkhamiṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, Cūḷabodhi the virtuous;

Having seen existence as fearful, I went-forth.

V170       “Yā me dutiyikā āsi, brāhmaṇī kanakasannibhā;

Sāpi vaṭṭe anapekkhā, nekkhammaṃ abhinikkhami.

“One who was my wife, a brāhmaṇī resembling gold [color];

She too was disinterested in the world, [and] went-forth.

V171       “Nirālayā chinnabandhū, anapekkhā kule gaṇe;

Carantā gāmanigamaṃ, bārāṇasimupāgamuṃ.

“Home-less and relative-less, disinterested in clan and country;

Wandering thru villages and townships, we approached Bārāṇasi.

V172       “Tattha vasāma nipakā, asaṃsaṭṭhā kule gaṇe;

Nirākule appasadde, rājuyyāne vasāmubho.

“There we lived prudently, unassociated with clan and country;

Stress-free [and] quiet, we both lived in the royal garden.

V173       “Uyyānadassanaṃ gantvā, rājā addasa brāhmaṇiṃ;

Upagamma mamaṃ pucchi, ‘tuyhesā kā kassa bhariyā’.

“Having gone on a tour of the garden, king saw the brāhmaṇi;

Having approached me he asked, ‘[is she] yours? whose wife is she’?

V174       “Evaṃ vutte ahaṃ tassa, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ;

‘Na mayhaṃ bhariyā esā, sahadhammā ekasāsanī’.

“Being spoken to by him, to him I spoke these words;

‘She isn’t my wife, she is a co-farer in the same teaching’.

V175       “Tissā [tassā (sī.)] sārattagadhito, gāhāpetvāna ceṭake;

Nippīḷayanto balasā, antepuraṃ pavesayi.

“Impassioned with lust, he had her caught;

Pushing [her] with force, took her to his private quarters.

V176       “Odapattakiyā mayhaṃ, sahajā ekasāsanī;

Ākaḍḍhitvā nayantiyā, kopo me upapajjatha.

“My wife, born in dhamma in the same teaching;

[When she was] Pulled out and lead away, anger arose in me.

V177       “Saha kope samuppanne, sīlabbatamanussariṃ;

Tattheva kopaṃ niggaṇhiṃ, nādāsiṃ vaḍḍhitūpari.

“On arising of anger, I recollected the precepts;

Right there I censured the anger, I did not let it grow beyond.

V178       “Yadi naṃ brāhmaṇiṃ koci, koṭṭeyya tiṇhasattiyā;

Neva sīlaṃ pabhindeyyaṃ, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā.

“[Even] If this brāhmaṇi was, roughly [beaten] with sharp spears;

I would not break the virtue, because it was for enlightenment.

V179       “Na mesā brāhmaṇī dessā, napi me balaṃ na vijjati;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā sīlānurakkhisa”nti.

“I did not hate that brāhmaṇi, nor was I without strength;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I protected the precepts”.

Cūḷabodhicariyaṃ catutthaṃ. – Conduct of Cūḷabodhi Fourth.

2.5              (15) Mahiṃsarājacariyā – Conduct of Mahiṃsarāja (Buffalo King) [65]

V180       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, mahiṃso pavanacārako;

Pavaḍḍhakāyo balavā, mahanto bhīmadassano.

“Again when in a past life I was, a wild buffalo dwelling in the forest;

Big bodied and strong, huge and looking dreadful.

V181       “Pabbhāre giridugge [vanadugge (sī.)] ca, rukkhamūle dakāsaye;

Hotettha ṭhānaṃ mahiṃsānaṃ, koci koci tahiṃ tahiṃ.

“Mountain-shelters, hill-forts, tree-roots and water-holes;

These were the resorts of the wild buffaloes, some here-some there.

V182       “Vicaranto brahāraññe, ṭhānaṃ addasa bhaddakaṃ;

Taṃ ṭhānaṃ upagantvāna, tiṭṭhāmi ca sayāmi ca.

“Wandering in the great jungle, I saw a good place;

Having approached that place, I stood there as well as lie down.

V183       “Athettha kapimāgantvā, pāpo anariyo lahu;

Khandhe nalāṭe bhamuke, mutteti ohanetitaṃ.

“Then a monkey came over, an evil ignoble swift one;

On my body, forehead and eyebrows, he urinated and defecated.

V184       “Sakimpi divasaṃ dutiyaṃ, tatiyaṃ catutthampi ca;

Dūseti maṃ sabbakālaṃ, tena homi upadduto.

“One day, and second day, third day and fourth day too;

He dirtied me all the time, I was thus troubled by him.

V185       “Mamaṃ upaddutaṃ disvā, yakkho maṃ idamabravi;

‘Nāsehetaṃ chavaṃ pāpaṃ, siṅgehi ca khurehi ca’.

“Having seen me thus troubled, a yakkha spoke to me thus;

‘Destroy him, the vile evil one, by [your] horns and hooves too’.

V186       “Evaṃ vutte tadā yakkhe, ahaṃ taṃ idamabraviṃ;

‘Kiṃ tvaṃ makkhesi kuṇapena, pāpena anariyena maṃ.

“When the yakkha spoke thus, I spoke to him thus;

‘ Why do you smear me with that loathsome, evil ignoble one?

V187       “ ‘Yadihaṃ tassa pakuppeyyaṃ, tato hīnataro bhave;

Sīlañca me pabhijjeyya, viññū ca garaheyyu maṃ.

“ ‘If I get angry at that one, I become low by that [anger];

My virtue will also break, and wise will reproach me too.

V188       “ ‘Hīḷitā jīvitā vāpi, parisuddhena mataṃ varaṃ;

Kyāhaṃ jīvitahetūpi, kāhāmiṃ paraheṭhanaṃ’.

“ ‘Ashamed I will be until I live, better to die completely pure;

Why would for the sake of living, why will I injure others’?

V189       “Mamevāyaṃ maññamāno, aññepevaṃ karissati;

Teva tassa vadhissanti, sā me mutti bhavissati.

“Doing thus to me, [monkey] will do the same to others too;

They may strike him off, that will be my freedom. [66]

V190       “Hīnamajjhimaukkaṭṭhe, sahanto avamānitaṃ;

Evaṃ labhati sappañño, manasā yathā patthita”nti.

“In the low-middling-high, I tolerated the insults;

Thus a wise one gains, one who aspires mentally [for nibbana]”.

Mahiṃsarājacariyaṃ pañcamaṃ. – Conduct of Mahiṃsarāja Fifth.

2.6              (16) Rururājacariyā – Conduct of Rururāja (King Ruru) [67]

V191       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, sutattakanakasannibho;

Migarājā rurunāma, paramasīlasamāhito.

“Again when in a past life I was, one resembling blazing-hot gold;

My name was Ruru, king of deers, restrained by the highest virtue.

V192       “Ramme padese ramaṇīye, vivitte amanussake;

Tattha vāsaṃ upagañchiṃ, gaṅgākūle manorame.

“Indulging in the delightful country, secluded and devoid of humans;

Having approached there I lived, on the delightful banks of Gaṅgā.

V193       “Atha upari gaṅgāya, dhanikehi paripīḷito;

Puriso gaṅgāya papati, ‘jīvāmi vā marāmi vā’.

“Then upstream of Gaṅgā, someone troubled by a wealthy person;

A man jumped in Gaṅgā [thinking], ‘live or die’.

V194       “Rattindivaṃ so gaṅgāya, vuyhamāno mahodake;

Ravanto karuṇaṃ ravaṃ, majjhe gaṅgāya gacchati.

“Night and day, he was carried by the great current of Gaṅgā;

Crying pitiably, he was carried away in the middle of Gaṅgā.

V195       “Tassāhaṃ saddaṃ sutvāna, karuṇaṃ paridevato;

Gaṅgāya tīre ṭhatvāna, apucchiṃ ‘kosi tvaṃ naro’.

“Having heard his cries, lamenting pitiably;

Standing on the banks of Gaṅgā, I asked ‘Who are you, man’?

V196       “So me puṭṭho ca byākāsi, attano karaṇaṃ tadā;

‘Dhanikehi bhīto tasito, pakkhandohaṃ mahānadiṃ’.

“When I asked thus, he declared his situation then;

‘Afraid and frightened of the wealthy one, I jumped in the great river’.

V197       “Tassa katvāna kāruññaṃ, cajitvā mama jīvitaṃ;

Pavisitvā nīhariṃ tassa, andhakāramhi rattiyā.

“Being compassionate to him, giving-up my own life;

I entered [Gaṅgā] to rescue him, in the darkness of the night.

V198       “Assatthakālamaññāya, tassāhaṃ idamabraviṃ;

‘Ekaṃ taṃ varaṃ yācāmi, mā maṃ kassaci pāvada’.

“Understanding he was consoled, I spoke to him thus;

‘I ask you one boon, don’t tell anyone about me’.

V199       “Nagaraṃ gantvāna ācikkhi, pucchito dhanahetuko;

Rājānaṃ so gahetvāna, upagañchi mamantikaṃ.

“Having gone to the city he told, when asked, one desirous of wealth;

Bringing the king [with him], he approached me.

V200       “Yāvatā karaṇaṃ sabbaṃ, rañño ārocitaṃ mayā;

Rājā sutvāna vacanaṃ, usuṃ tassa pakappayi;

‘Idheva ghātayissāmi, mittadubbhiṃ [mittadūbhiṃ (sī.)] anāriyaṃ’.

“Then the whole story, was announced to the king by me;

King having heard the words, fitted an arrow [on his bow];

‘Right here I will destroy him, one who offends friends, the ignoble one’.

V201       “Tamahaṃ anurakkhanto, nimminiṃ mama attanā;

‘Tiṭṭhateso mahārāja, kāmakāro bhavāmi te’.

“There I protected him, substituting myself;

‘Let him be O Great King, I will do your bidding’. [68]

V202       “Anurakkhiṃ mama sīlaṃ, nārakkhiṃ mama jīvitaṃ;

Sīlavā hi tadā āsiṃ, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā”ti.

“I protected my virtue, I did not protect my life;

I was a virtuous one then, because it was for enlightenment”. [69]

Rururājacariyaṃ chaṭṭhaṃ. – Conduct of Rururāja Sixth.

2.7              (17) Mātaṅgacariyā – Conduct of Mātaṅga [70]

V203       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, jaṭilo uggatāpano;

Mātaṅgo nāma nāmena, sīlavā susamāhito.

“Again when in a past life I was, a matted-hair mighty ascetic;

My name was Mātaṅga, virtuous and well-restrained.

V204       “Ahañca brāhmaṇo eko, gaṅgākūle vasāmubho;

Ahaṃ vasāmi upari, heṭṭhā vasati brāhmaṇo.

“I and a brāhmaṇa too, we both lived on the banks of Gaṅgā;

I lived upstream, the brāhmaṇa lived downstream.

V205       “Vicaranto anukūlamhi, uddhaṃ me assamaddasa;

Tattha maṃ paribhāsetvā, abhisapi muddhaphālanaṃ.

“Walking on the banks [of Gaṅgā], he saw my ashram upstream;

There he used abusive language, cursed me that my head will split.

V206       “Yadihaṃ tassa pakuppeyyaṃ, yadi sīlaṃ na gopaye;

Oloketvānahaṃ tassa, kareyyaṃ chārikaṃ viya.

“If I had become angry at him, if I hadn’t protected my virtue;

By just looking at him, I could have turned him into ashes.

V207       “Yaṃ so tadā maṃ abhisapi, kupito duṭṭhamānaso;

Tasseva matthake nipati, yogena taṃ pamocayiṃ.

“Then as he cursed me thus, the angry one with a hateful mind;

It fell back on his head, [but] I freed him from that bond [curse]. [71]

V208       “Anurakkhiṃ mama sīlaṃ, nārakkhiṃ mama jīvitaṃ;

Sīlavā hi tadā āsiṃ, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā”ti.

“I protected my virtue, I did not protect my life;

I was a virtuous one then, because it was for enlightenment”. [72]

Mātaṅgacariyaṃ sattamaṃ. – Conduct of Mātaṅga Seventh.

2.8              (18) Dhammadevaputtacariyā – Conduct of Dhammadevaputta (Dhamma the Son of Deva) [73]

V209       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, mahāpakkho mahiddhiko;

Dhammo nāma mahāyakkho, sabbalokānukampako.

“Again when in a past life I was, one with a large retinue, of great supernormal powers;

A great yakkha named Dhamma, compassionate for the whole world.

V210       “Dasakusalakammapathe, samādapento mahājanaṃ;

Carāmi gāmanigamaṃ, samitto saparijjano.

“The ten wholesome courses of action, rousing a great mass of people [to undertake];

I wandered thru villages and towns, with [my] friends and relatives. [74]

V211       “Pāpo kadariyo yakkho, dīpento dasa pāpake;

Sopettha mahiyā carati, samitto saparijjano.

“An evil stingy yakkha, explaining the ten evils;

He too was wandering the earth, with [his] friends and relatives.

V212       “Dhammavādī adhammo ca, ubho paccanikā mayaṃ;

Dhure dhuraṃ ghaṭṭayantā, samimhā paṭipathe ubho.

“Dhamma-speaker and non-dhamma too, both of us enemies;

Yoke-pole to yoke-pole we clashed, when we both were face-to-face.

V213       “Kalaho vattatī bhesmā, kalyāṇapāpakassa ca;

Maggā okkamanatthāya, mahāyuddho upaṭṭhito.

“A dreadful quarrel ensued, between wholesome and evil;

To enter on the path, a great war started.

V214       “Yadihaṃ tassa kuppeyyaṃ, yadi bhinde tapoguṇaṃ;

Sahaparijanaṃ tassa, rajabhūtaṃ kareyyahaṃ.

“If I had gotten angry at him, if I had broken my practice of morality;

Him and his retinue, I could have turned into dust.

V215       “Apicāhaṃ sīlarakkhāya, nibbāpetvāna mānasaṃ;

Saha janenokkamitvā, pathaṃ pāpassa dāsahaṃ.

“But I protected the virtue, having liberated my mind [from anger];

Having entered with people, I gave the path to the evil one.

V216       “Saha pathato okkante, katvā cittassa nibbutiṃ;

Vivaraṃ adāsi pathavī, pāpayakkhassa tāvade”ti.

“Having entered the path, I liberated my mind [from anger];

The earth opened-up, [swallowing-up] evil yakkha immediately”.

Dhammadevaputtacariyaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ. – Conduct of Dhammadevaputta Eighth.

2.9              (19) Alīnasattucariyā – Conduct of Alīnasattu [75]

V217       “Pañcālaraṭṭhe nagaravare, kapilāyaṃ [kampilāyaṃ (sī.), kappilāyaṃ (syā.)] puruttame;

Rājā jayaddiso nāma, sīlaguṇamupāgato.

“In the highest city of Pañcāla country, Kapilā the best fortress city;

There was a king named Jayaddisa, who had characteristics of virtue.

V218       “Tassa rañño ahaṃ putto, sutadhammo susīlavā;

Alīnasatto guṇavā, anurakkhaparijano sadā.

“I was the son of that king, one who had heard the Dhamma, a virtuous one;

Alīnasatta with good characteristics, always guarding the close ones.

V219       “Pitā me migavaṃ gantvā, porisādaṃ upāgami;

So me pitumaggahesi, ‘bhakkhosi mama mā cali’.

“My father having gone for a deer-hunt, Porisāda approached him;

He seized my father, ‘You are my prey, don’t move’.

V220       “Tassa taṃ vacanaṃ sutvā, bhīto tasitavedhito;

Ūrukkhambho ahu tassa, disvāna porisādakaṃ.

“Having heard his words, [king was] afraid-frightened-trembling;

His feet were frozen, having seen Porisāda.

V221       “Migavaṃ gahetvā muñcassu, katvā āgamanaṃ puna;

Brāhmaṇassa dhanaṃ datvā, pitā āmantayī mamaṃ.

“Having taken the deer-meat and freed, having returned again;

Having given wealth to brāhmaṇā, father addressed me.

V222       “ ‘Rajjaṃ putta paṭipajja, mā pamajji puraṃ idaṃ;

Kataṃ me porisādena, mama āgamanaṃ puna’.

“ ‘Start your rulership son, don’t be heedless in this fortress;

I have [told] Porisāda, I am returning again’.

V223       “Mātāpitū ca vanditvā, nimminitvāna attanā;

Nikkhipitvā dhanuṃ khaggaṃ, porisādaṃ upāgamiṃ.

“Having paid homage to mother-father, having substituted myself [for father];

Putting down the bow and sword, I approached Porisāda.

V224       “Sasatthahatthūpagataṃ, kadāci so tasissati;

Tena bhijjissati sīlaṃ, parittāsaṃ [paritāsaṃ (sī.)] kate mayi.

“With sword in [my] hand, maybe he will be frightened;

That will break my virtue, if I cause anguish to him.

V225       “Sīlakhaṇḍabhayā mayhaṃ, tassa dessaṃ na byāhariṃ;

Mettacitto hitavādī, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ.

“I was afraid of breaking the virtue, I didn’t utter hateful speech to him;

With a mind of loving-friendliness and welfare, I spoke these words.

V226       “ ‘Ujjālehi mahāaggiṃ, papatissāmi rukkhato;

Tvaṃ pakkakālamaññāya [supakkakālamaññāya (pī.)], bhakkhaya maṃ pitāmaha’.

“ ‘Start-up a great fire, I will fall into it from the tree;

When you know I am fully-cooked, you can eat me, O Grandfather’.

V227       “Iti sīlavataṃ hetu, nārakkhiṃ mama jīvitaṃ;

Pabbājesiṃ cahaṃ tassa, sadā pāṇātipātika”nti.

“Thus for the virtue, I didn’t protect my life;

I also ordained him [Porisāda], to be always non-violent”. [76]

Alīnasattucariyaṃ navamaṃ. – Conduct of Alīnasattu Ninth.

2.10          (20) Saṅkhapālacariyā – Conduct of Saṅkhapāla [77]

V228       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, saṅkhapālo mahiddhiko;

Dāṭhāvudho ghoraviso, dvijivho uragādhibhū.

“Again when in a past life I was, Saṅkhapāla of great supernormal powers;

With big fangs, drop-dead poison, and a forked-tongue, the lord of snakes.

V229       “Catuppathe mahāmagge, nānājanasamākule;

Caturo aṅge adhiṭṭhāya, tattha vāsamakappayiṃ.

“At the cross-roads on the highway, populated by various people;

Strongly determined in four limbs, there I lived. [78]

V230       “Chaviyā cammena maṃsena, nahāruaṭṭhikehi vā;

Yassa etena karaṇīyaṃ, dinnaṃyeva harātu so.

“Outer-skin, inner-skin, meat, muscles, or bones;

Whatever you can use, I give it, take it away. [79]

V231       “Addasaṃsu bhojaputtā, kharā luddā akāruṇā;

Upagañchuṃ mamaṃ tattha, daṇḍamuggarapāṇino.

“I saw the Bhojaputtā, cruel-hunter-merciless;

They approached me, with sticks and hammers in hand.

V232       “Nāsāya vinivijjhitvā, naṅguṭṭhe piṭṭhikaṇṭake;

Kāje āropayitvāna, bhojaputtā hariṃsu maṃ.

“Piercing me thru the nose, thru the tail and the back-bone;

Having tied me to a carrying pole, Bhojaputtā carried me away.

V233       “Sasāgarantaṃ pathaviṃ, sakānanaṃ sapabbataṃ;

Icchamāno cahaṃ tattha, nāsāvātena jhāpaye.

This earth until the shores of sea, with its gardens and its mountains;

If I wished then, I could have consumed it with my [poisonous] breath.

V234       “Sūlehi vinivijjhante, koṭṭayantepi sattibhi;

Bhojaputte na kuppāmi, esā me sīlapāramī”ti.

“When pierced by darts, treated roughly by spears;

I did not get angry at Bhojaputtā, this was my perfection of virtues“.

Saṅkhapālacariyaṃ dasamaṃ. – Conduct of Saṅkhapāla Tenth.

Hatthināgavaggo dutiyo.– Hatthināga Section Second.

Tassuddānaṃ –

Hatthināgo bhūridatto, campeyyo bodhi mahiṃso;

Ruru mātaṅgo dhammo ca, atrajo ca jayaddiso.

Ete nava sīlabalā, parikkhārā padesikā;

Jīvitaṃ parirakkhitvā, sīlāni anurakkhisaṃ.

Saṅkhapālassa me sato, sabbakālampi jīvitaṃ;

Yassa kassaci niyyattaṃ, tasmā sā sīlapāramīti.

Therefore said [contents]

Hatthināga Bhūridatta, Campeyya Bodhi Mahiṃsa;

Ruru Mātaṅga Dhamma too, son of Jayaddisa too.

These nine with the power of virtue, were partial fulfillment of requisites;

Having maintained the life, I protected the virtues.

I was Saṅkhapāla too, always [giving away] my life;

Giving it to whosoever, that was perfection of virtues.

Sīlapāraminiddeso niṭṭhito. – The Exposition on Perfection of Virtues is finished.


3. Yudhañjayavaggo – Section on Yudhañjaya

3.1              (21) Yudhañjayacariyā – Conduct of Yudhañjaya (Victor of War) [80]

V235       “Yadāhaṃ amitayaso, rājaputto yudhañjayo;

Ussāvabinduṃ sūriyātape, patitaṃ disvāna saṃvijiṃ.

“When I was of measureless reputation, a prince named Yudhañjaya;

Seeing disappearing dew-drops in the sun, I was deeply agitated.

V236       “Taññevādhipatiṃ katvā, saṃvegamanubrūhayiṃ;

Mātāpitū ca vanditvā, pabbajjamanuyācahaṃ.

“Having mastered [the fact of impermanence], having cultivated deep agitation;

Having paid homage to mother-father, I asked permission to ordain. [81]

V237       “Yācanti maṃ pañjalikā, sanegamā saraṭṭhakā;

‘Ajjeva putta paṭipajja, iddhaṃ phītaṃ mahāmahiṃ’.

“They begged of me with folded hands, with town[-people], country[-people];

‘Practice [kingship] today itself son, [enjoy] success-prosperity-great earth’.

V238       “Sarājake sahorodhe, sanegame saraṭṭhake;

Karuṇaṃ paridevante, anapekkhova pariccajiṃ.

“While king and queens, township[-people] and country[-people];

They were lamenting pitiably, disinterested I left them.

V239       “Kevalaṃ pathaviṃ rajjaṃ, ñātiparijanaṃ yasaṃ;

Cajamāno na cintesiṃ, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā.

“The entire kingdom of earth, relatives-close ones reputation;

I didn’t think before giving them up, because it was for enlightenment. [82]

V240       “Mātāpitā na me dessā, napi me dessaṃ mahāyasaṃ;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā rajjaṃ pariccaji”nti.

“I didn’t hate mother-father, nor did I hate great reputation;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave-up the kingdom”. [83]

Yudhañjayacariyaṃ paṭhamaṃ. – Conduct of Yudhañjaya First.

3.2              (22) Somanassacariyā – Conduct of Somanassa [84]

V241       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, indapatthe puruttame;

Kāmito dayito putto, somanassoti vissuto.

“Again when in a past life I was, in Indapattha the best fortress city;

A wished-for, beloved son, renowned as Somanassa. [85]

V242       “Sīlavā guṇasampanno, kalyāṇapaṭibhānavā;

Vuḍḍhāpacāyī hirīmā, saṅgahesu ca kovido.

“Virtuous and endowed with good characteristics, wholesome-witty speech;

Respectful to elders, with a sense of shame, skillful in maintaining relationships. [86]

V243       “Tassa rañño patikaro, ahosi kuhakatāpaso;

Ārāmaṃ mālāvacchañca, ropayitvāna jīvati.

“There the king was compliant, to a deceitful ascetic;

Monastery, garlands and calves too, having farmed he lived. [87]

V244       “Tamahaṃ disvāna kuhakaṃ, thusarāsiṃva ataṇḍulaṃ;

Dumaṃva anto susiraṃ, kadaliṃva asārakaṃ.

“Then I saw the deceitful one, like a heap of non-rice [husks];

Like a tree internally decayed, like an essence-less plantain tree. [88]

V245       “Natthimassa sataṃ dhammo, sāmaññāpagato ayaṃ;

Hirīsukkadhammajahito, jīvitavuttikāraṇā.

“There is no good Dhamma in him, this one has departed from the holy-life;

He has abandoned the bright dhamma of shame, to maintain his life.

V246       “Kupito ahu [ahosi (sī.), āsi (syā.)] paccanto, aṭavīhi parantihi;

Taṃ nisedhetuṃ gacchanto, anusāsi pitā mamaṃ.

“Then the frontiers got restless, the remote forest lands;

Going to prevent them [from rebelling], my father taught me. [89]

V247       “ ‘Mā pamajji tuvaṃ tāta, jaṭilaṃ uggatāpanaṃ;

Yadicchakaṃ pavattehi, sabbakāmadado hi so’.

“ ‘Don’t you be heedless O dear, to the matted-hair mighty ascetic;

Respect his wishes, he is the giver of all sensual pleasures’.

V248       “Tamahaṃ gantvānupaṭṭhānaṃ, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ;

‘Kacci te gahapati kusalaṃ, kiṃ vā te āharīyatu’.

“Then having gone to attend on him, I spoke these words;

‘Are you well Householder, what should be brought for you’?

V249       “Tena so kupito āsi, kuhako mānanissito;

‘Ghātāpemi tuvaṃ ajja, raṭṭhā pabbājayāmi vā’.

“Then he became angry, the deceitful and conceited one;

‘I will destroy you today, or have you banished from the country’.

V250       “Nisedhayitvā paccantaṃ, rājā kuhakamabravi;

‘Kacci te bhante khamanīyaṃ, sammāno te pavattito’.

“Having prevented frontiers [from rebelling], king spoke to the deceitful one;

‘Are you well Venerable Sir, were you shown respect’? [90]

V251       “Tassa ācikkhatī pāpo, kumāro yathā nāsiyo;

Tassa taṃ vacanaṃ sutvā, āṇāpesi mahīpati.

“There the evil one spoke, the prince should be destroyed;

Having heard his words, the Lord of Earth [King] ordered.

V252       “ ‘Sīsaṃ tattheva chinditvā, katvāna catukhaṇḍikaṃ;

Rathiyā rathiyaṃ dassetha, sā gati jaṭilahīḷitā’.

“ ‘Cut-off his head right there, and having cut him in four pieces;

Display him from street to street, the result of insulting a matted-hair ascetic’.

V253       “Tattha kāraṇikā gantvā, caṇḍā luddā akāruṇā;

Mātuaṅke nisinnassa, ākaḍḍhitvā nayanti maṃ.

“Then having gone the workers, fierce-hunter-merciless;

While I was sitting in my mother’s lap, having pulled out they lead me away.

V254       “Tesāhaṃ evamavacaṃ, bandhataṃ gāḷhabandhanaṃ;

‘Rañño dassetha maṃ khippaṃ, rājakiriyāni atthi me’.

“I spoke thus to them, while tied with extremely tight bonds;

‘I want to see the king right away, I have business with the king’.

V255       “Te maṃ rañño dassayiṃsu, pāpassa pāpasevino;

Disvāna taṃ saññāpesiṃ, mamañca vasamānayiṃ.

“They showed me to the king, one who was serving the evil one;

Having seen I convinced him, and brought him back to believe me.

V256       “So maṃ tattha khamāpesi, mahārajjamadāsi me;

Sohaṃ tamaṃ dālayitvā, pabbajiṃ anagāriyaṃ.

“There he asked for my pardon, and gave me the great kingdom;

[But] Having cut-off the darkness, I went forth in homelessness.

V257       “Na me dessaṃ mahārajjaṃ, kāmabhogo na dessiyo;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā rajjaṃ pariccaji”nti.

“I did not hate the great kingdom, nor did I hate the partaking of sensual pleasures;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave-up the kingdom”. [91]

Somanassacariyaṃ dutiyaṃ. – Conduct of Somanassa Second.

3.3              (23) Ayogharacariyā – Conduct of Ayoghara (Iron House) [92]


V258       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, kāsirājassa atrajo;

Ayogharamhi saṃvaḍḍho, nāmenāsi ayogharo.

“Again when in a past life I was, one born of the King of Kāsi;

Since I grew up in an iron-house, my name was Ayoghara. [93]

Father of Ayoghara to Ayoghara:

V259       “Dukkhena jīvito laddho, saṃpīḷe patiposito;

Ajjeva putta paṭipajja, kevalaṃ vasudhaṃ imaṃ.

“You have gained life with suffering, in confinement you have been raised;

Practice [kingship] today itself son, on this entire earth [world].

Ayoghara to his Father:

V260       “Saraṭṭhakaṃ sanigamaṃ, sajanaṃ vanditva khattiyaṃ;

Añjaliṃ paggahetvāna, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ.

“Country[-people] and township[-people], having paid homage to people including khattiyā;

Having outstretched the folded hands, I spoke these words.

V261       “ ‘Ye keci mahiyā sattā, hīnamukkaṭṭhamajjhimā;

Nirārakkhā sake gehe, vaḍḍhanti sakañātibhi.

“ ‘Whatever beings are there on this earth, low-high-and-middling;

Unprotected in their own houses, they grow up with their relatives.

V262       “ ‘Idaṃ loke uttariyaṃ, saṃpīḷe mama posanaṃ;

Ayogharamhi saṃvaḍḍho, appabhe candasūriye.

“ ‘Unique in this world, in confinement I was raised;

I grew up in an iron-house, without the light of moon and sun.

V263       “ ‘Pūtikuṇapasampuṇṇā, muccitvā mātu kucchito;

Tato ghoratare dukkhe, puna pakkhittayoghare.

“ ‘Completely filled with foul and loathsome, I was freed from mother’s womb;

From there in the deep dark suffering, again I was thrown into the iron-house.

V264       “ ‘Yadihaṃ tādisaṃ patvā, dukkhaṃ paramadāruṇaṃ;

Rajjesu yadi rajjāmi [rañjāmi (sī.)], pāpānaṃ uttamo siyaṃ.

“ ‘If I were to fall into it [again], in the dreadful suffering;

If I were to be covered in dust [of lust], I will be foremost among the evil ones.

V265       “ ‘Ukkaṇṭhitomhi kāyena, rajjenamhi anatthiko;

Nibbutiṃ pariyesissaṃ, yattha maṃ maccu na maddiye’.

“ ‘Discontent I am with my body, desireless for the kingdom;

I am searching for liberation, where death doesn’t trample me’.

V266       “Evāhaṃ cintayitvāna, viravante mahājane;

Nāgova bandhanaṃ chetvā, pāvisiṃ kānanaṃ vanaṃ.

“Thus having thought I, [leaving] the great assembly of people crying aloud;

Like a great elephant having broken the bonds, I entered the garden-forest.

V267       “Mātāpitā na me dessā, napi me dessaṃ mahāyasaṃ;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā rajjaṃ pariccaji”nti.

“I didn’t hate my mother-father, nor did I hate great reputation;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I gave-up the kingdom”. [94]

Ayogharacariyaṃ tatiyaṃ. – Conduct of Ayoghara Third.

3.4              (24) Bhisacariyā – Conduct of Bhisa (Lotus Stalk) [95]

V268       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, kāsīnaṃ puravaruttame;

Bhaginī ca bhātaro satta, nibbattā sotthiye kule.

“Again when in a past life I was, in the best and highest fortress city of Kāsi;

A sister and brothers seven, we were born in a well-to-do family.

V269       “Etesaṃ pubbajo āsiṃ, hirīsukkamupāgato;

Bhavaṃ disvāna bhayato, nekkhammābhirato ahaṃ.

“There I was the eldest, having approached the bright dhamma of shame;

Having seen existence as fearful, I delighted in going-forth. [96]

V270       “Mātāpitūhi pahitā, sahāyā ekamānasā;

Kāmehi maṃ nimantenti, ‘kulavaṃsaṃ dharehi’ti.

“Sent by mother-father, friends were of the same mind;

They invited me to sensual pleasures, ‘Continue the family lineage’.

V271       “Yaṃ tesaṃ vacanaṃ vuttaṃ, gihīdhamme sukhāvahaṃ;

Taṃ me ahosi kaṭhinaṃ, tatta [santatta (ka.)] phālasamaṃ viya.

“When they said those words, [that] household life brings happiness;

Then it was hard for me, like a burning hot ploughshare.

V272       “Te maṃ tadā ukkhipantaṃ, pucchiṃsu patthitaṃ mama;

‘Kiṃ tvaṃ patthayase samma, yadi kāme na bhuñjasi’.

“They then asked me, one rejecting, what I aspired for;

‘What do you aspire for friend, if you don’t want to partake of sensual pleasures’?

V273       “Tesāhaṃ evamavacaṃ, atthakāmo hitesinaṃ;

‘Nāhaṃ patthemi gihībhāvaṃ, nekkhammābhirato ahaṃ’.

“I spoke thus to them, desirous of my benefit, to my well-wishers;

‘I don’t aspire for householder life, I delight in going-forth’.

V274       “Te mayhaṃ vacanaṃ sutvā, pitumātu ca sāvayuṃ;

Mātāpitā evamāhu, ‘sabbeva pabbajāma bho’.

“Having heard my words they, announced it to my father-mother too;

Mother-father spoke thus, ‘Let all of us go forth, O good sir’. [97]

V275       “Ubho mātāpitā mayhaṃ, bhaginī ca satta bhātaro;

Amitadhanaṃ chaḍḍayitvā, pāvisimhā mahāvana”nti.

“Both my mother-father, sister and brothers seven;

Having left countless wealth behind, we entered the great forest”.

Bhisacariyaṃ catutthaṃ. – Conduct of Bhisa Fourth.

3.5              (25) Soṇapaṇḍitacariyā – Conduct of Soṇapaṇḍita (Wise Soṇa) [98]

V276       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, nagare brahmavaḍḍhane;

Tattha kulavare seṭṭhe, mahāsāle ajāyahaṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, in the city of Brahmavaḍḍhana;

There in the highest and best family, a very rich one, I was born. [99]

V277       “Tadāpi lokaṃ disvāna, andhībhūtaṃ tamotthaṭaṃ;

Cittaṃ bhavato patikuṭati, tuttavegahataṃ viya.

“Then too having seen the world, become blind and covered by darkness;

My mind turned away [from world], like pricked with a pike.

V278       “Disvāna vividhaṃ pāpaṃ, evaṃ cintesahaṃ tadā;

‘Kadāhaṃ gehā nikkhamma, pavisissāmi kānanaṃ’.

“Having seen various evils, thus I thought then;

‘When will I go-forth from home, and enter the gardens’?

V279       “Tadāpi maṃ nimantesuṃ, kāmabhogehi ñātayo;

Tesampi chandamācikkhiṃ, ‘mā nimantetha tehi maṃ’.

“Then too the relatives invited me, to partake of sensual pleasures;

Then I told them my desire, ‘Please don’t invite me to it’.

V280       “Yo me kaniṭṭhako bhātā, nando nāmāsi paṇḍito;

Sopi maṃ anusikkhanto, pabbajjaṃ samarocayi.

“One who was my younger brother, a wise one named Nanda;

He too learning from me, was well-pleased with going-forth.

V281       “Ahaṃ soṇo ca nando ca, ubho mātāpitā mama;

Tadāpi bhoge chaḍḍetvā, pāvisimhā mahāvana”nti.

“I Soṇa, and Nanda too, both my mother-father;

Then too leaving behind the partaking [of pleasures], we entered the great forest”.

Soṇapaṇḍitacariyaṃ pañcamaṃ. – Conduct of Soṇapaṇḍita Fifth.

3.6              (26) Temiyacariyā – Conduct of Temiya [100]

V282       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, kāsirājassa atrajo;

Mūgapakkhoti nāmena, temiyoti vadanti maṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, one born of the King of Kāsi;

My name was Mūgapakkha, [but] they called me Temiya too. [101]

V283       “Soḷasitthisahassānaṃ, na vijjati pumo tadā [sadā (sī.)];

Ahorattānaṃ accayena, nibbatto ahamekako.

“Among sixteen thousand women [queens], not a single male was to be seen;

After many days and nights passed, I was born, the sole one.

V284       “Kicchā laddhaṃ piyaṃ puttaṃ, abhijātaṃ jutindharaṃ;

Setacchattaṃ dhārayitvāna, sayane poseti maṃ pitā.

“Gained with difficulty, dear beloved son, well-born, a light bearer;

Under a white umbrella, in luxury I was nourished by father. [102]

V285       “Niddāyamāno sayanavare, pabujjhitvānahaṃ tadā;

Addasaṃ paṇḍaraṃ chattaṃ, yenāhaṃ nirayaṃ gato.

“Overcome with sleep on the highest bed, I [suddenly] woke up then;

Having seen the white umbrella, because of which I had gone to hell. [103]

V286       “Saha diṭṭhassa me chattaṃ, tāso uppajji bheravo;

Vinicchayaṃ samāpanno, ‘kathāhaṃ imaṃ muñcissaṃ’.

“As I saw the umbrella, the fright arose in me;

I entered upon resolution, ‘How do I free myself from it’?

V287       “Pubbasālohitā mayhaṃ, devatā atthakāminī;

Sā maṃ disvāna dukkhitaṃ, tīsu ṭhānesu yojayi.

“A relative of the past, a Devatā desirous of my well-being;

Having seen me suffering, she yoked me to the three states. [104]

V288       “ ‘Mā paṇḍiccayaṃ vibhāvaya, bālamato bhava sabbapāṇinaṃ;

Sabbo taṃ jano ocināyatu, evaṃ tava attho bhavissati’.

“ ‘Don’t act like a wise one, act like a fool to all beings;

When all people gather [against] you, that will be in your benefit’.

V289       “Evaṃ vuttāyahaṃ tassā, idaṃ vacanamabraviṃ;

‘Karomi te taṃ vacanaṃ, yaṃ tvaṃ bhaṇasi devate;

Atthakāmāsi me amma, hitakāmāsi devate’.

“When she spoke to me thus, I spoke these words;

‘I will do your words, as you have spoken O Devatā;

O mother desirous of my benefit, O Devatā desirous of my welfare’. [105]

V290       “Tassāhaṃ vacanaṃ sutvā, sāgareva thalaṃ labhiṃ;

Haṭṭho saṃviggamānaso, tayo aṅge adhiṭṭhahiṃ.

“Having heard her words, it was as if one in the [deep] sea found the shore;

Overjoyed and with a deeply agitated mind, I strongly determined by all three limbs. [106]

V291       “Mūgo ahosiṃ badhiro, pakkho gativivajjito;

Ete aṅge adhiṭṭhāya, vassāni soḷasaṃ vasiṃ.

“I became dumb and deaf, a cripple without motion;

Thus strongly determined in limbs, I lived like that for sixteen years.

V292       “Tato me hatthapāde ca, jivhaṃ sotañca maddiya;

Anūnataṃ me passitvā, ‘kāḷakaṇṇī’ti nindisuṃ.

“There my hands and feet too, tongue and ears were checked;

Seeing me in entirety, ‘unfortunate one’ they criticized me. [107]

V293       “Tato jānapadā sabbe, senāpatipurohitā;

Sabbe ekamanā hutvā, chaḍḍanaṃ anumodisuṃ.

“There the entire republic, general of the army and the advisor;

All of them became of the same mind, they agreed to leave me [aside].

V294       “Sohaṃ tesaṃ matiṃ sutvā, haṭṭho saṃviggamānaso;

Yassatthāya tapociṇṇo, so me attho samijjhatha.

“Having heard their thinking, overjoyed and with a deeply agitated mind;

The goal for which I had practiced, that goal was fulfilled.

V295       “Nhāpetvā anulimpitvā, veṭhetvā rājaveṭhanaṃ;

Chattena abhisiñcitvā, kāresuṃ puraṃ padakkhiṇaṃ.

“I was showered and anointed, and dressed in princely clothes;

Covered by umbrella and showered upon, I was made to circumambulate the fortress city. [108]

V296       “Sattāhaṃ dhārayitvāna, uggate ravimaṇḍale;

Rathena maṃ nīharitvā, sārathī vanamupāgami.

“Keeping me like that for seven days, when the sun arose [on the eighth];

Taking me in the chariot, charioteer approached the forest.

V297       “Ekokāse rathaṃ katvā, sajjassaṃ hatthamuccito [hatthamuñcito (sī. syā.)];

Sārathī khaṇatī kāsuṃ, nikhātuṃ pathaviyā mamaṃ.

“Parking chariot at some place, he freed the horses [from chariot];

The charioteer dug a hole, to bury me in the earth.

V298       “Adhiṭṭhitamadhiṭṭhānaṃ, tajjento vividhakāraṇā;

Na bhindiṃ tamadhiṭṭhānaṃ, bodhiyāyeva kāraṇā.

“Strongly determined, fearful for various reasons [of breaking that resolution];

I did not break that strong determination, because it was for enlightenment.

V299       “Mātāpitā na me dessā, attā me na ca dessiyo;

Sabbaññutaṃ piyaṃ mayhaṃ, tasmā vatamadhiṭṭhahiṃ.

“I didn’t hate my mother-father, nor did I hate myself too;

Omniscience was dear to me, that’s why I was strongly determined. [109]

V300       “Ete aṅge adhiṭṭhāya, vassāni soḷasaṃ vasiṃ;

Adhiṭṭhānena me samo natthi, esā me adhiṭṭhānapāramī”ti.

“Thus strongly determined in limbs, I lived for sixteen years;

There was no one like me in strong determination, this was my perfection of strong determination”.

Temiyacariyaṃ chaṭṭhaṃ. – Conduct of Temiya Sixth.

3.7              (27) Kapirājacariyā – Conduct of Kapirāja (Monkey King) [110]

V301       “Yadā ahaṃ kapi āsiṃ, nadīkūle darīsaye;

Pīḷito susumārena, gamanaṃ na labhāmahaṃ.

“When I was a monkey, on the riverbank, sleeping in a [tree] cleft;

Troubled by a crocodile, I couldn’t get away [from there].

V302       “Yamhokāse ahaṃ ṭhatvā, orā pāraṃ patāmahaṃ;

Tatthacchi sattu vadhako, kumbhīlo luddadassano.

“On the side [where] I stood, jumping to far-shore from near-shore;

There waited the enemy-assassin, the crocodile looking like a hunter.

V303       “So maṃ asaṃsi ‘ehī’ti, ‘ahaṃpemī’ti taṃ vatiṃ;

Tassa matthakamakkamma, parakūle patiṭṭhahiṃ.

“So he said to me ‘Come’, I said ‘I am coming’ to him;

I jumped on to his head, and reached the far-shore [from there].

V304       “Na tassa alikaṃ bhaṇitaṃ, yathā vācaṃ akāsahaṃ;

Saccena me samo natthi, esā me saccapāramī”ti.

“I didn’t tell him any untruth, I did as I said;

There was no one like me in truth, this was my perfection of truthfulness”. [111]

Kapirājacariyaṃ sattamaṃ. – Conduct of Kapirāja Seventh.

3.8              (28) Saccatāpasacariyā – Conduct of Saccatāpasa (True Ascetic) [112]

V305       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, tāpaso saccasavhayo;

Saccena lokaṃ pālesiṃ, samaggaṃ janamakāsaha”nti.

“Again when in a past life I was, an ascetic named Sacca;

I protected the world with truth, I united the people”. [113]

Saccatāpasacariyaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ. – Conduct of Saccatāpasa Eighth.

3.9              (29) Vaṭṭapotakacariyā – Conduct of Vaṭṭapotaka (Young Quail) [114]

V306       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, magadhe vaṭṭapotako;

Ajātapakkho taruṇo, maṃsapesi kulāvake.

“Again when in a past life I was, a young quail in Magadha;

A young one without wings, like a piece of meat in the nest.

V307       “Mukhatuṇḍakenāharitvā [mukhatuṇḍenāharitvā (sī.)], mātā posayatī mamaṃ;

Tassā phassena jīvāmi, natthi me kāyikaṃ balaṃ.

“Having brought [food] in [her] beak, mother nourished me;

Because of that contact I lived, I had no bodily strength.

V308       “Saṃvacchare gimhasamaye, davaḍāho [vanadāho (ka.)] padippati;

Upagacchati amhākaṃ, pāvako kaṇhavattanī.

“In the summer-time of the year, a forest-fire started;

It approached us, the fire like a black-ball.

V309       “Dhamadhamā itievaṃ, saddāyanto mahāsikhī;

Anupubbena jhāpento, aggi mamamupāgami.

“Like dhama-dhama, great fire was making hissing sounds;

Gradually consuming [everything], fire approached me.

V310       “Aggivegabhayātītā, tasitā mātāpitā mama;

Kulāvake maṃ chaḍḍetvā, attānaṃ parimocayuṃ.

“Fearful with the speed of fire, my mother-father were frightened;

Leaving me behind in the nest, they freed themselves [flew away].

V311       “Pāde pakkhe pajahāmi, natthi me kāyikaṃ balaṃ;

Sohaṃ agatiko tattha, evaṃ cintesahaṃ tadā.

“I had no feet or wings, I had no bodily strength;

Thus lying motionless there, then I thought like this.

V312       “ ‘Yesāhaṃ upadhāveyyaṃ, bhīto tasitavedhito;

Te maṃ ohāya pakkantā, kathaṃ me ajja kātave.

“ ‘Ones to whom I would run, when I was afraid frightened-trembling;

Leaving me they [mother-father] went away, what should I do today?

V313       “ ‘Atthi loke sīlaguṇo, saccaṃ soceyyanuddayā;

Tena saccena kāhāmi, saccakiriyamuttamaṃ.

“ ‘There are in the world virtues, truthfulness purity-compassion;

Therefore I will truthfully do, the best act of truth.

V314       “ ‘Āvejjetvā dhammabalaṃ, saritvā pubbake jine;

Saccabalamavassāya, saccakiriyamakāsahaṃ.

“ ‘With a deep Dhamma agitation, having recollected the past Victors;

Dependent on the strength of truth, I did an act of truth.

V315       “ ‘Santi pakkhā apatanā, santi pādā avañcanā;

Mātāpitā ca nikkhantā, jātaveda paṭikkama’.

“ ‘I have wings but unable to fly, I have feet but unable to walk;

Mother-father have also left, departed from the fire’. [115]

V316       “Sahasacce kate mayhaṃ, mahāpajjalito sikhī;

Vajjesi soḷasakarīsāni, udakaṃ patvā yathā sikhī;

Saccena me samo natthi, esā me saccapāramī”ti.

“As I did the act of truth, the great burning fire;

Went sixteen lengths away [from me], like water sprinkled on the fire;

There was no one like me in truth, this was my perfection of truthfulness”. [116]

Vaṭṭapotakacariyaṃ navamaṃ. – Conduct of Vaṭṭapotaka Ninth.

3.10          (30) Maccharājacariyā – Conduct of Maccharāja (Fish King) [117]

V317       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, maccharājā mahāsare;

Uṇhe sūriyasantāpe, sare udaka khīyatha.

“Again when in a past life I was, a king of fishes in a great lake;

In the hot season, due to sun heat, the water evaporated from the lake.

V318       “Tato kākā ca gijjhā ca, kaṅkā [bakā (sī.)] kulalasenakā;

Bhakkhayanti divārattiṃ, macche upanisīdiya.

“There crows and vultures too, herons [cranes] and falcons-hawks;

They were devouring day and night, the fishes sitting nearby.

V319       “Evaṃ cintesahaṃ tattha, saha ñātīhi pīḷito;

‘Kena nu kho upāyena, ñātī dukkhā pamocaye’.

“I was thinking there, with my relatives I am troubled;

‘Indeed by what means, can I free my relatives from [this] suffering’?

V320       “Vicintayitvā dhammatthaṃ, saccaṃ addasa passayaṃ;

Sacce ṭhatvā pamocesiṃ, ñātīnaṃ taṃ atikkhayaṃ.

“Having thought established in Dhamma, I saw truth as refuge;

Established in truthfulness I will free, [my] relatives from this great destruction.

V321       “Anussaritvā sataṃ dhammaṃ, paramatthaṃ vicintayaṃ;

Akāsi saccakiriyaṃ, yaṃ loke dhuvasassataṃ.

“Having remembered the good Dhamma, having thought about the highest goal;

I did an act of truth, certain and eternal in this world.

V322       “ ‘Yato sarāmi attānaṃ, yato pattosmi viññutaṃ;

Nābhijānāmi sañcicca, ekapāṇampi hiṃsitaṃ.

“ ‘As I recollect myself, since I have reached understanding;

I don’t know intentionally, doing violence to even one being. [118]

V323       “ ‘Etena saccavajjena, pajjunno abhivassatu;

Abhitthanaya pajjunna, nidhiṃ kākassa nāsaya;

Kākaṃ sokāya randhehi, macche sokā pamocaya’.

“ ‘May by these truthful words, Pajjunna the rain-god pour down;

With the thunders of Pajjunna, may the treasure of crows be destroyed;

May sorrow become the weak-point of crows, may the fishes be freed from sorrow’. [119]

V324       “Sahakate saccavare, pajjunno abhigajjiya;

Thalaṃ ninnañca pūrento, khaṇena abhivassatha.

“As I said this highest truth, Pajjunna thundered;

Filled-up the land and lowlands, just in a momentary rain.

V325       “Evarūpaṃ saccavaraṃ, katvā vīriyamuttamaṃ;

Vassāpesiṃ mahāmeghaṃ, saccatejabalassito;

Saccena me samo natthi, esā me saccapāramī”ti.

“Thus with the highest truth, I did the best energetic endeavor;

I made the great-cloud rain down, because of heat and strength of truth;

There was no one like me in truth, this was my perfection of truthfulness”. [120]

Maccharājacariyaṃ dasamaṃ. – Conduct of Maccharāja Tenth.

3.11          (31) Kaṇhadīpāyanacariyā – Conduct of Kaṇhadīpāyana (Black Dīpāyana) [121]

V326       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, kaṇhadīpāyano isi;

Paropaññāsavassāni, anabhiratocariṃ ahaṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, sage Kaṇhadīpāyana;

After fifty years, I was dwelling dissatisfied.

V327       “Na koci etaṃ jānāti, anabhiratimanaṃ mama;

Ahañhi kassaci nācikkhiṃ, arati me carati mānase.

“May no one know this, that my mind was dissatisfied;

And I didn’t tell anyone, that dissatisfaction was in my mind.

V328       “Sabrahmacārī maṇḍabyo, sahāyo me mahāisi;

Pubbakammasamāyutto, sūlamāropanaṃ labhi.

“My co-farer in holy-life Maṇḍabya, my helper a great sage;

Because of some past kamma, he was subjected to impaling on a dart.

V329       “Tamahaṃ upaṭṭhahitvāna, ārogyamanupāpayiṃ;

Āpucchitvāna āgañchiṃ, yaṃ mayhaṃ sakamassamaṃ.

“Then I having established [myself there], he became healthy;

Taking leave I came back, where my own ashram was.

V330       “Sahāyo brāhmaṇo mayhaṃ, bhariyaṃ ādāya puttakaṃ;

Tayo janā samāgantvā, āgañchuṃ pāhunāgataṃ.

“My helper brāhmaṇa, his wife taking the son;

The three having got together, came as visitors.

V331       “Sammodamāno tehi saha, nisinno sakamassame;

Dārako vaṭṭamanukkhipaṃ, āsīvisamakopayi.

“Being friendly to them, I was sitting in my own ashram;

Young child playing with the ball, angered a poisonous snake.

V332       “Tato so vaṭṭagataṃ maggaṃ, anvesanto kumārako;

Āsīvisassa hatthena, uttamaṅgaṃ parāmasi.

“There while the young boy was searching, which way the ball went;

With his hand he touched, the snake on the head. [122]

V333       “Tassa āmasane kuddho, sappo visabalassito;

Kupito paramakopena, aḍaṃsi dārakaṃ khaṇe.

“Angry because of that touch, snake who had the strength of poison;

Greatly angered, he bit the young child immediately.

V334       “Sahadaṭṭho āsīvisena [ativisena (pī. ka.)], dārako papati [patati (ka.)] bhūmiyaṃ;

Tenāhaṃ dukkhito āsiṃ, mama vāhasi taṃ dukkhaṃ.

“The moment he was bitten by the snake, young child fell-down on the earth;

Because of that I was unhappy, I felt responsible for their suffering too.

V335       “Tyāhaṃ assāsayitvāna, dukkhite sokasallite;

Paṭhamaṃ akāsiṃ kiriyaṃ, aggaṃ saccaṃ varuttamaṃ.

“There I comforted them, the ones who were unhappy, smeared with sorrow;

Right after that I did an action, foremost-truthful-highest and best.

V336       “ ‘Sattāhamevāhaṃ pasannacitto, puññatthiko acariṃ brahmacariyaṃ;

Athāparaṃ yaṃ caritaṃ mamedaṃ, vassāni paññāsasamādhikāni.

“ ‘For [only] seven days I glad-minded, desirous of merits fared the holy-life;

In the past I had fared here, samādhi concentration for fifty years. [123]

V337       “ ‘Akāmako vāhi ahaṃ carāmi, etena saccena suvatthi hotu;

Hataṃ visaṃ jīvatu yaññadatto’.

“ ‘Unwillingly I have dwelt, may there be wellness because of this truth;

May the poison be destroyed and may Yaññadatta live’. [124]

V338       “Saha sacce kate mayhaṃ, visavegena vedhito;

Abujjhitvāna vuṭṭhāsi, arogo cāsi māṇavo;

Saccena me samo natthi, esā me saccapāramī”ti.

“As I did the act of truth, the one pierced with poison;

Woke up and got up, without any sickness the young person;

There was no one like me in truth, this was my perfection of truthfulness”. [125]

Kaṇhadīpāyanacariyaṃ ekādasamaṃ. – Conduct of Kaṇhadīpāyana Eleventh.

3.12          (32) Sutasomacariyā – Conduct of Sutasoma (Soma who has heard) [126]

V339       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, sutasomo mahīpati;

Gahito porisādena, brāhmaṇe saṅgaraṃ sariṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, Sutasoma the Lord of Earth [King];

Grabbed by Porisāda, I recollected a promise I had given to a Brāhmaṇa.

V340       “Khattiyānaṃ ekasataṃ, āvuṇitvā karattale;

Etesaṃ pamilāpetvā, yaññatthe upanayī mamaṃ.

“One hundred khattiyā [kings], tied by hand and feet;

[They] Were languishing there, [where] he brought me for sacrifice.

V341       “Apucchi maṃ porisādo, ‘kiṃ tvaṃ icchasi nissajaṃ;

Yathāmati te kāhāmi, yadi me tvaṃ punehisi’.

“Porisāda asked me, ‘What do you wish, tell me;

If I do as you want, will you come back to me’?

V342       “Tassa paṭissuṇitvāna, paṇhe āgamanaṃ mama;

Upagantvā puraṃ rammaṃ, rajjaṃ niyyādayiṃ tadā.

“Having promised him, at dawn I will return;

Having gone to the delightful fortress, I handed-over the kingdom.

V343       “Anussaritvā sataṃ dhammaṃ, pubbakaṃ jinasevitaṃ;

Brāhmaṇassa dhanaṃ datvā, porisādaṃ upāgamiṃ.

“Having remembered the good Dhamma, resorted to by Victor in past;

Having given wealth to brāhmaṇā, I approached Porisāda.

V344       “Natthi me saṃsayo tattha, ghātayissati vā na vā;

Saccavācānurakkhanto, jīvitaṃ cajitumupāgamiṃ;

Saccena me samo natthi, esā me saccapāramī”ti.

“I had no doubts there, whether [he] will kill me or not;

Protecting the truthful speech, giving up my life I approached [Porisāda];

There was no one like me in truth, this was my perfection of truthfulness”. [127]

Sutasomacariyaṃ dvādasamaṃ. – Conduct of Sutasoma Twelfth.

3.13          (33) Suvaṇṇasāmacariyā – Conduct of Suvaṇṇasāma (Golden Understanding) [128]

V345       “Sāmo yadā vane āsiṃ, sakkena abhinimmito;

Pavane sīhabyagghe ca, mettāyamupanāmayiṃ.

“When I was Sāma in the forest, the one created by Sakka;

Lions-tigers of the forest, I brought them to loving-friendliness.

V346       “Sīhabyagghehi dīpīhi, acchehi mahisehi ca;

Pasadamigavarāhehi, parivāretvā vane vasiṃ.

“Lions-tigers and panthers, bears and wild bulls too;

Antelopes-deers-boars, attended by them I lived in the forest.

V347       “Na maṃ koci uttasati, napi bhāyāmi kassaci;

Mettābalenupatthaddho, ramāmi pavane tadā”ti.

“Nothing alarmed me, nor was I fearful of anything;

Supported by the strength of loving-friendliness, I delighted in the forest then”.

Suvaṇṇasāmacariyaṃ terasamaṃ. – Conduct of Suvaṇṇasāma Thirteenth.

3.14          (34) Ekarājacariyā – Conduct of Ekarāja (One King) [129]

V348       “Punāparaṃ yadā homi, ekarājāti vissuto;

Paramaṃ sīlaṃ adhiṭṭhāya, pasāsāmi mahāmahiṃ.

“Again when in a past life I was, one renowned as Ekarāja;

Having strongly determined on highest virtue, I ruled the great earth.

V349       “Dasa kusalakammapathe, vattāmi anavasesato;

Catūhi saṅgahavatthūhi, saṅgaṇhāmi [saṅgahāmi (ka.)] mahājanaṃ.

“The ten wholesome courses of action, I observed them fully;

By the four sustaining things, I sustained the great assembly of people. [130]

V350       “Evaṃ me appamattassa, idha loke parattha ca;

Dabbaseno upagantvā, acchindanto puraṃ mama.

“Thus I was heedful, for this world and hereafter too;

[Suddenly] Dabbasena approached, placed a siege around my fortress.

V351       “Rājūpajīve nigame, sabalaṭṭhe saraṭṭhake;

Sabbaṃ hatthagataṃ katvā, kāsuyā nikhaṇī mamaṃ.

“Subduing the kingdom and townships, including soldiers and country;

Having controlled everything, he buried me in a pit.

V352       “Amaccamaṇḍalaṃ rajjaṃ, phītaṃ antepuraṃ mama;

Acchinditvāna gahitaṃ, piyaṃ puttaṃva passahaṃ;

Mettāya me samo natthi, esā me mettāpāramī”ti.

“Council of ministers and kingdom, my prosperity and queens;

Having sieged he grabbed them all, I saw my dear son too [grabbed];

There was no one equal to me in loving-friendliness, this was my perfection of loving-friendliness”.

Ekarājacariyaṃ cuddasamaṃ. – Conduct of Ekarāja Fourteenth.

3.15          (35) Mahālomahaṃsacariyā – Conduct of Mahālomahaṃsa (Great Hair Raising) [131]

V353       “Susāne seyyaṃ kappemi, chavaṭṭhikaṃ upanidhāyahaṃ;

Gāmaṇḍalā [gomaṇḍalā (sī.), gāmamaṇḍalā (syā.)] upāgantvā, rūpaṃ dassentinappakaṃ.

“I slept in the cemetery, I became like skeleton-bones;

Having approached me the village boys, harassed me in many ways. [132]

V354       “Apare gandhamālañca, bhojanaṃ vividhaṃ bahuṃ;

Upāyanānūpanenti, haṭṭhā saṃviggamānasā.

“Others [brought] perfumes-garlands, various kinds of many eatables;

Gifts-drinks too, overjoyed and with a deeply agitated mind.

V355       “Ye me dukkhaṃ upaharanti, ye ca denti sukhaṃ mama;

Sabbesaṃ samako homi, dayā kopo na vijjati.

“Those who brought me suffering, and those who gave me happiness;

Being equanimous to all these, neither compassion nor anger was seen.

V356       “Sukhadukkhe tulābhūto, yasesu ayasesu ca;

Sabbattha samako homi, esā me upekkhāpāramī”ti.

“Balanced in happiness and suffering, in reputation and disrepute too;

I was equanimous to everything, this was my perfection of equanimity”.

Mahālomahaṃsacariyaṃ pannarasamaṃ. – Conduct of Mahālomahaṃsa Fifteenth.

Yudhañjayavaggo tatiyo.Yudhañjaya Section Third.

Tassuddānaṃ –

Yudhañjayo somanasso, ayogharabhisena ca;

Soṇanando mūgapakkho, kapirājā saccasavhayo.

Vaṭṭako maccharājā ca, kaṇhadīpāyano isi;

Sutasomo puna āsiṃ [āsi (syā.)], sāmo ca ekarājahu;

Upekkhāpāramī āsi, iti vutthaṃ [vuttaṃ (sabbattha) aṭṭhakathā oloketabbā] mahesinā.

Evaṃ bahubbidhaṃ dukkhaṃ, sampattī ca bahubbidhā [sampatti ca bahuvidhā (sī.), sampattiṃ ca bahuvidhaṃ (ka.)];

Bhavābhave anubhavitvā, patto sambodhimuttamaṃ.

Datvā dātabbakaṃ dānaṃ, sīlaṃ pūretvā asesato;

Nekkhamme pāramiṃ gantvā, patto sambodhimuttamaṃ.

Paṇḍite paripucchitvā, vīriyaṃ katvāna muttamaṃ;

Khantiyā pāramiṃ gantvā, patto sambodhimuttamaṃ.

Katvā daḷhamadhiṭṭhānaṃ, saccavācānurakkhiya;

Mettāya pāramiṃ gantvā, patto sambodhimuttamaṃ.

Lābhālābhe yasāyase, sammānanāvamānane;

Sabbattha samako hutvā, patto sambodhimuttamaṃ.

Kosajjaṃ bhayato disvā, vīriyārambhañca khemato;

Āraddhavīriyā hotha, esā buddhānusāsanī.

Vivādaṃ bhayato disvā, avivādañca khemato;

Samaggā sakhilā hotha, esā buddhānusāsanī.

Pamādaṃ bhayato disvā, appamādañca khemato;

Bhāvethaṭṭhaṅgikaṃ maggaṃ, esā buddhānusāsanī.

Therefore said [contents]

Yudhañjaya Somanassa, Ayoghara-Bhisa too;

Soṇa-Nanda Mūgapakkha, Kapirāja Sacca-named.

Vaṭṭaka and Maccharājā too, Kaṇhadīpāyana sage;

Sutasoma again I was, Sāma and Ekarāja too;

That was my Perfection of Equanimity, thus it was said by the great sage. [133]

Thus various sufferings, various fortunes too;

Having experienced them in existence after existence, I have reached the best self-enlightenment.

Having given to those worthy of giving, having Fulfilled Virtues without remainder;

Having reached the Perfection of Renunciation, I have reached the best self-enlightenment.

Having questioned the wise ones, I was energetic in the best way;

Having reached the Perfection of Patience, I have reached the best self-enlightenment.

Having made Strong Determination, I protected the Truthful Speech;

Having reached the Perfection of Loving-Friendliness, I have reached the best self-enlightenment.

In gain and loss, reputation and disrepute, revered or non-revered;

Having been Equanimous to everything, I have reached the best self-enlightenment.

Having seen fear in indolence, and being energetic as a refuge;

Be firm and energetic, thus the Buddha taught.

Having seen fear in disputations, and non-disputations as a refuge;

Be united and of kind speech, thus the Buddha taught.

Having seen fear in heedlessness, and heedfulness as a refuge;

Develop the eightfold path, thus the Buddha taught.

Itthaṃ sudaṃ bhagavā attano pubbacariyaṃ sambhāvayamāno buddhāpadāniyaṃ nāma dhammapariyāyaṃ abhāsitthāti.

The Blessed One spoke about his past conduct on how he became [the Buddha], the biography of Buddha, a Dhamma teaching.

Cariyāpiṭakaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ. – The Book of Basket of Conduct is finished.

Appendix 1: An Analysis of Cariyāpiṭaka

Table 1.1


Cariyāpiṭaka Sutta


CST Jātakapāḷi & Other Suttā


Akitticariyā – Conduct of Akitti

dāna (generosity)

286 Akitti Jātaka


Saṅkhacariyā – Conduct of Saṅkha

dāna (generosity)

442 Saṅkha Jātaka, also called Saṅkhabrāhmaṇa Jātaka


Kururājacariyā – Conduct of Kururāja (Kuru King)

dāna (generosity)

276 Kurudhamma Jātaka


Mahāsudassanacariyā – Conduct of Mahāsudassana

dāna (generosity)

95 Mahāsudassana Jātaka &

LDB 17 Mahāsudassana Sutta


Mahāgovindacariyā – Conduct of Mahāgovinda

dāna (generosity)

LDB 18 Janavasabha Sutta & LDB 19 Mahāgovinda Sutta


Nimirājacariyā – Conduct of Nimirāja (King Nimi)

dāna (generosity)

MLDB 83 Makhādeva Sutta & 541 Nimi Jātaka


Candakumāracariyā – Conduct of Candakumāra (Prince Moon)

dāna (generosity)

544 Candakumāra Jātaka, also called Khaṇḍahāla Jātaka


Sivirājacariyā – Conduct of Sivirāja (King Sivi)

dāna (generosity)

499 Sivi Jātaka


Vessantaracariyā – Conduct of Vessantara

dāna (generosity)

547 Vessantara Jātaka


Sasapaṇḍitacariyā – Conduct of Sasapaṇḍita (Wise Rabbit)

dāna (generosity)

316 Sasapaṇḍita Jātaka


Mātuposakacariyā – Conduct of Mātuposaka (Helper of Mother)

sīla (virtue)

455 Mātuposaka Jātaka (also called Mātuposaka Nāgarāja Jātaka) & 540 Suvaṇṇasāma Jātaka


Bhūridattacariyā – Conduct of Bhūridatta (Wise Datta)

sīla (virtue)

543 Bhūridatta Jātaka


Campeyyanāgacariyā – Conduct of Campeyyanāga (Snake of Campa)

sīla (virtue)

506 Campeyya Jātaka


Cūḷabodhicariyā – Conduct of Cūḷabodhi (Bodhi the Young)

sīla (virtue)

443 Cūḷabodhi Jātaka


Mahiṃsarājacariyā – Conduct of Mahiṃsarāja (Buffalo King)

sīla (virtue) *

278 Mahiṃsarāja Jātaka (Mahisa Jātaka)


Rururājacariyā – Conduct of Rururāja (King Ruru)

sīla (virtue)

482 Rurumigarāja Jātaka


Mātaṅgacariyā – Conduct of Mātaṅga

sīla (virtue)

497 Mātaṅga Jātaka


Dhammadevaputtacariyā – Conduct of Dhammadevaputta (Dhamma the Son of Deva)

sīla (virtue)

457 Dhammadevaputta Jātaka, also called Dhamma Jātaka


Alīnasattucariyā – Conduct of Alīnasattu

sīla (virtue)

513 Jayaddisa Jātaka


Saṅkhapālacariyā – Conduct of Saṅkhapāla

sīla (virtue)

524 Saṅkhapāla Jātaka


Yudhañjayacariyā – Conduct of Yudhañjaya (Victor of War)

nekkhamma (renunciation)

460 Yuvañjaya Jātaka


Somanassacariyā – Conduct of Somanassa

nekkhamma (renunciation)

505 Somanassa Jātaka


Ayogharacariyā – Conduct of Ayoghara (Iron House)

nekkhamma (renunciation)

510 Ayoghara Jātaka


Bhisacariyā – Conduct of Bhisa (Lotus Stalk)

nekkhamma (renunciation)

488 Bhisa Jātaka


Soṇapaṇḍitacariyā – Conduct of Soṇapaṇḍita (Wise Soṇa)

nekkhamma (renunciation)

532 Soṇananda Jātaka


Temiyacariyā – Conduct of Temiya

adhiṭṭhāna (strong determination)

538 Mūgapakkha Jātaka (Temiya Jātaka)


Kapirājacariyā – Conduct of Kapirāja (Monkey King)

sacca (truth)

208 Susumāra or Suṃsumāra Jātaka & 57 Vānarinda Jātaka


Saccatāpasacariyā – Conduct of Saccatāpasa (True Ascetic)

sacca (truth)

73 Saccaṃkira Jātaka (doubtful)


Vaṭṭapotakacariyā – Conduct of Vaṭṭapotaka (Young Quail)

sacca (truth)

35 Vaṭṭaka Jātaka


Maccharājacariyā – Conduct of Maccharāja (Fish King)

sacca (truth)

75 Maccha Jātaka


Kaṇhadīpāyanacariyā – Conduct of Kaṇhadīpāyana (Black Dīpāyana)

sacca (truth)

444 Kaṇhadīpāyana Jātaka


Sutasomacariyā – Conduct of Sutasoma (Soma who has heard)

sacca (truth)

537 Mahā Sutasoma Jātaka


Suvaṇṇasāmacariyā – Conduct of Suvaṇṇasāma (Golden Understanding)

mettā (loving-friendliness)

540 Suvaṇṇasāma Jātaka


Ekarājacariyā – Conduct of Ekarāja (One King)

mettā (loving-friendliness)

303 Ekarāja Jātaka


Mahālomahaṃsacariyā – Conduct of Mahālomahaṃsa (Great Hair Raising)

upekkhā (equanimity)

94 Lomahaṃsa Jātaka


* = This appears to be more aligned with perfection of the khanti (patience) pārami, rather than the sīla (virtue) pārami.

Table 1.2



Total Suttā in this book *

% Weight for the Parāmi


dāna (generosity)




sīla (virtue)

10 or 9

28.57% or 25.71%


nekkhamma (renunciation)




paññā (wisdom)




vīriya (energy)




khanti (patience)

0 or 1

0% or 2.86%


sacca (truth)




adhiṭṭhāna (strong determination)




mettā (loving-friendliness)




upekkhā (equanimity)




* = While Wisdom, Energy, and Patience have no stories, they are implicit in one or more of the stories.


Appendix 2: Buddhist Path by Numbered Lists

Four Means of Sustaining an Assembly (catūhi saṅgahavatthūhi):

“Bhikkhus, there are these four means of sustaining a favorable relationship.  What four? Giving, endearing speech, beneficent conduct, and impartiality.  These are the four means of sustaining a favorable relationship.”

[From NDB4.32 Sustaining Sutta, Hatthaka was declared foremost in this, see NDB 1.251].

Ten Bases Of Merits (dasahi puññakiriyavatthūhi):








sharing merits


service, assistance


preaching Dhamma


rejoicing in others merits


has right view


listening to Dhamma



[From Abhidhammāvatāra-purāṇaṭīkā: Paṭhamo paricchedo-Cittaniddeso-21]

Ten Right Views (dasavatthukā Sammādiṭṭhi):

atthi dinnaṃ,

‘There is what is given,

atthi yiṭṭhaṃ,

what is offered,

atthi hutaṃ,

what is sacrificed;

atthi sukatadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko,

there is fruit or result of good and bad actions;

atthi ayaṃ loko,

there is this world,

atthi paro loko,

there is other world;

atthi mātā,

there is mother,

atthi pitā,

there is father;

atthi sattā opapātikā,

there are beings who are reborn spontaneously;

atthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti.

there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realized by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’

[From MLDB 41.14 Sāleyyaka Sutta]

Ten Wholesome Courses of Action (Dasa Kusalakammapathā):

pāṇātipātā veramaṇī

not taking life

adinnādānā veramaṇī

not taking what is not given

kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī

no sexual misconduct

musāvādā veramaṇī

no lying speech

pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī

no slander

pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī

no rude speech

samphappalāpā veramaṇī

no idle chatter


no greed


no malevolence


no wrong view

[From LDB 33.3.3(5) Sangīti Sutta]

Destinations (gati) – Two, Three, Four, and Thirty-One:

1.       Thirty-One: There are a total of thirty-one planes of existence.  The lowest plane of existence is hell and the highest is the heaven of “Base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception”.

2.       Four: The Four destinations are the four lower or bad destinations (apāya): the hells (niraya), the animal realm (tiracchāna), the domain of ghosts (petā), and host of Asurā (asurā).

3.       Three: The Three destinations or becomings are the thirty-one planes of existence divided among the becomings in the sense-sphere (kāmabhavā), the form-sphere (rūpabhavā), and the formless-sphere (arūpabhavā).

4.       Two: the Two destinations are simply the thirty-one planes of existence divided in bad destinations (duggati, see the four destinations above) and good destinations (sugati, human realm and upwards including all the heavenly realms).  Two destinations (THIG V458) can also mean Human and Divine realms.


Uposatha is the Buddhist day of observance when lay people observe the eightfold precepts: (1) Not to kill, (2) Not to steal, (3) Not to engage in sexual intercourse, (4) Not to speak lies, (5) Not to take intoxicants, (6) Not to eat food between noon and the following dawn, (7) Not to sing, dance or watch entertainments, not to use ornaments, cosmetics or perfumes, and (8) Not to sit or lie on a luxurious or high seat or bed – see NDB 8.41.  See NDB 3.70 for comparison of Uposathas of a Cowherd, a Jain, and a Noble Disciple.


Appendix 3: Vessantara

DPPN: Vessantara (the Bodhisatta, see CST Jātakapāḷi-547 Vessantara Jātaka) was the son of Sañjaya, king of Sivi, and queen Phusatī, and was so called because his mother started in labor as she passed through a street of workers (vessa) in the city of Jetuttara, and he was born in a house in the same street.  He spoke as soon as he was born.  On the same day was also born a white elephant named Paccaya.  At the age of eight, Vessantara wished to make a great gift and the earth trembled.  He married Maddī at the age of sixteen, and their children were Jāli and Kaṇhājinā.

At that time there was a great drought in Kāliṅga, and eight brahmins came from there to Vessantara to beg his white elephant, which had the power of making rain to fall.  He granted their request, and gave the elephant together with its priceless trappings.  The citizens of Jetuttara were greatly upset that their elephant should have been given away, and demanded of Sañjaya that Vessantara should be banished to Vaṅkagiri.  The will of the people prevailed, and Vessantara was asked to take the road along which those travel who have offended.  He agreed to go, but before setting out, obtained the king’s leave to hold an almsgiving called the “Gift of the Seven Hundreds” (Sattasataka), in which he gave away seven hundreds of each kind of thing.  People came from all over Jambudīpa to accept his gifts, and the almsgiving lasted for a whole day.

When Vessantara took leave of his parents and prepared for his journey, Maddī insisted on accompanying him with her two children.  They were conveyed in a gorgeous carriage drawn by four horses, but, outside the city, Vessantara met four brahmins who begged his horses.  Four devas then drew the chariot, but another brahmin soon appeared and obtained the chariot.  Thenceforth they traveled on foot, through Suvaṇṇagiritāla, across the river Kontimārā, to beyond Mount Arañjaragiri and Dunniviṭṭha, to his uncle’s city, in the kingdom of Cetā.  The devas shortened the way for them, and the trees lowered their fruit that they might eat.  Sixty thousand khattiyas came out to welcome Vessantara and offered him their kingdom, which, however, he refused.  He would not even enter the city, but remained outside the gates, and, when he left early the next morning, the people of Cetā, led by Cetaputta, went with him for fifteen leagues, until they came to the entrance to the forest.  Vessantara and his family then proceeded to Gandhamādana, northwards, by the foot of Mount Vepulla to the river Ketumatī, where a forester entertained them and gave them to eat.  Thence they crossed the river to beyond Nālika, along the bank of Lake Mucalinda, to its north eastern corner, then along a narrow footpath into the dense forest, to Vaṅkagiri.  There Vissakamma had already built two hermitages, by order of Sakka, one for Vessantara and one for Maddī and the children, and there they took up their residence.  By Vessantara’s power, the wild animals to a distance of three leagues became gentle.  Maddī rose daily at dawn, and, having fetched water to wash, went into the forest for yams and fruit.  In the evening she returned, washed the children, and the family sat down to eat.  Thus passed four months.

Then from Dunniviṭṭha there came to the hermitage an old brahmin, called Jūjaka, who had been sent by his young wife, Amittatāpanā, to find slaves for her, because when she went to the well for water the other women had laughed at her, calling her “old man’s darling.”  She told Jūjaka that he could easily get Vessantara’s children as slaves, and so he came to Vaṅkagiri.  Asking the way of various people, including the hermit Accuta, Jūjaka arrived at Vaṅkagiri late in the evening and spent the night on the hilltop.  That night Maddī had a dream, and, being terrified, she sought Vessantara.  He knew what the dream presaged, but consoled her and sent her away the next day in search of food.  During her absence, Jūjaka came and made his request.  He would not await the return of Maddī, and Vessantara willingly gave him the two children.  However, they ran away and hid in a pond until told by their father to go with Jūjaka.  When Vessantara poured water on Jūjaka’s hand as a symbol of his gift, the earth trembled with joy.  Once more the children escaped and ran back to their father, but he strengthened his resolve with tears in his eyes.  Jūjaka led the children away, beating them along the road until their blood flowed.

It was late in the evening when Maddī returned because devas, assuming the form of beasts of prey, delayed her coming, lest she should stand in the way of Vessantara’s gift.  In answer to her questions, Vessantara spoke no word, and she spent the night searching for the children.  In the morning she returned to the hermitage and fell down fainting.  Vessantara restored her to consciousness and told her of what had happened, explaining why he had not told her earlier.  When she had heard his story she expressed her joy, affirming that he had made a noble gift for the sake of Omniscience.

And then, lest some vile creature should come and ask for Maddī, Sakka, assuming the form of a brahmin, appeared and asked for her.  Vessantara looked at Maddī, and she expressed her consent.  So he gave Maddī to the brahmin, and the earth trembled.  Sakka revealed his identity, gave Maddī back to Vessantara, and allowed him eight boons.  Vessantara asked that:

1.       he be recalled to his father’s city,

2.       he should condemn no man to death,

3.       he should be a helpmate to all alike

4.       he should not be guilty of adultery,

5.       his son should have long life:

6.       he should have celestial food,

7.       his means of giving should never fail,

8.       after death he should be reborn in heaven.

In the meantime, Jūjaka had traveled sixty leagues with the children, whom the devas cared for and protected.  Guided by the devas, they arrived in fifteen days at Jetuttara, though Jūjaka had intended to go to Kāliṅga.  Sañjaya bought the children from Jūjaka, paying a high price, including the gift of a seven storeyed palace.  However, Jūjaka died of over-eating, and as no relation of his could be traced, his possessions came back to the king.  Sañjaya ordered his army to be prepared and a road to be built from Jetuttara to Vaṅkagiri, eight furlongs (usabha) wide.  Seven days later, led by Jāli, Sañjaya, and Phusatī started for Vaṅkagiri.

In the army was the white elephant, which had been returned because the people of Kāliṅga could not maintain him.  There was great rejoicing at the reunion of the family, and the six royal personages fell in a swoon until they were revived by rain sent by Sakka, the rain only wetting those who so wished it.  Vessantara was crowned king of Sivi, with Maddī as his consort.  After a month’s merry making in the forest, they returned to Jetuttara.  On the day Vessantara entered the city he set free every captive, including even cats.  In the evening, as he lay wondering how he would be able to satisfy his suitors the next day, Sakka’s throne was heated, and he sent down a shower of the seven kinds of precious things, until the palace grounds were filled waist high.  Vessantara was thus able to practice his generosity to the end of his days.  After death he was born in Tusita.

The story was related on the occasion of the Buddha’s first visit to Kapilavatthu.  The Buddha’s kinsmen escorted him to the Nigrodhārāma, but sat round him without doing any obeisance, because of their great pride.  The Buddha then performed the Twin Miracle, and the Sākyā, led by Suddhodana, worshipped him.  There was then a shower of rain, refreshing all and falling only on those who so wished.  When the people expressed their wonder, the Buddha related this story, showing that in the past, too, rain had fallen on his kinsfolk to revive them.

·                     Devadatta is identified with Jūjaka,

·                     Ciñcamāṇavikā with Amittatāpanā,

·                     Channa with Cetaputta,

·                     Sāriputta with Accuta,

·                     Anuruddha with Sakka,

·                     Suddhodana with Sañjaya,

·                     Mahāmāyā with Phusatī,

·                     Rāhulamātā with Maddī,

·                     Rāhula with Jāli, and

·                     Uppalavaṇṇā with Kaṇhājinā.

The story is often referred to as that of a birth in which the Bodhisattas perfection of generosity (dāna-pāramī) reached its culmination.  The earth shook seven times when Vessantara made his gifts, and this forms the subject of a dilemma in the Milindapañha (Mil p113).

The story of Vessantara is the first of the Jātaka stories to disappear from the world.  See also Gūḷha Vessantara (wherein Commentaries mention that they think it is not the word of the Buddha [abuddhavacanāni], they were probably books belonging to sects other than the orthodox Theravādins).


Appendix 4: Bhūridatta

DPPN: Prince Brahmadatta (see CST Jātakapāḷi-543 Bhūridatta Jātaka), son of the king of Bārāṇasī, lived on the banks of the Yamunā, exiled from his father’s kingdom.  He wore the garb of an ascetic, but his heart was not in the ascetic life, and, when a Nāga maiden tried to seduce him, he easily succumbed.  Their children were Sāgara, Brahmadatta, and Samuddajā.  When the king of Bārāṇasī died, Brahmadatta returned with his children to the kingdom and his Nāga wife returned to the Nāga world.  While playing about in a lake specially prepared for them, the children of Brahmadatta discovered a turtle, Cittacūḷa, and were greatly frightened.  Cittacūḷa was brought before the king and was ordered to be cast into the Yamunā, that being the direst penalty the king could envisage.  Caught in a whirlpool, Cittacūḷa was carried to the realm of the Nāga king Dhataraṭṭha, and, when questioned, had the presence of mind to say that he had been sent from Bārāṇasī to propose a marriage between Dhataraṭṭha and Samuddajā.  Nāga messengers were sent to the Bārāṇasī court to make arrangements, and they laid their proposal before the king.  Cittacūḷa had meanwhile spirited himself away.  Brahmadatta was horrified at the proposals of the messengers, and did not fail to say so, whereupon Dhataraṭṭha was so incensed at the insult offered to him that he laid siege to Bārāṇasī with his Nāga hosts.  To avert the total destruction of the city, Samuddajā was given to Dhataraṭṭha, with whom she dwelt for a long time without discovering that she was in the Nāga world, everyone, at the king’s orders, having assumed human form.  Samuddajā had four children Sudassana, Datta, Subhaga, and Ariṭṭha (Kānāriṭṭha) and one step-daughter, Accimukhī.  Datta, who was the Bodhisatta, used to visit Virūpakkha, the ruler of the Nāga hosts, and one day went with him to pay homage to Sakka.  In the assembly a question arose which only Datta could answer, and Sakka was so pleased with him that he gave him the name of Bhūridatta (wise Datta).  Anxious to be in Sakka’s company, Bhūridatta took the vows and observed the fast, lying on the top of an ant hill.  At the end of the fast, Nāga maidens would come and take him back.

One day a brahmin villager and his son, Somadatta, went hunting in the forest and spent the night on a banyan tree near where Bhūridatta lay.  At dawn, these two saw the Nāga maidens come for Bhūridatta and witnessed their song and dance, which Bhūridatta, having laid aside his snake form, much enjoyed.  Discovering the presence of the villagers, Bhūridatta entered into conversation with them, and invited them to the Nāga world, where they passed a whole year, enjoying great luxury.  Owing to lack of merit, the villagers grew discontented and wished to return to the world of men on the pretext that they wished to become ascetics.  Bhūridatta offered them a wish-conferring jewel, but this they refused, saying that they had no use for it.  Once in the world of men, Somadatta and his father took off their ornaments to bathe, but these divine ornaments disappeared to the Nāga world.

Sometime later, while father and son were wandering about in the forest, having returned from stalking deer, they met a brahmin called Alambāyana, who possessed a Nāga jewel.  He was a poor man of Bārāṇasī who had fled into the forest to escape his creditors.  There he had met an ascetic, Kosiya, to whom a Garuḷa king had taught the Ālambāyana spell which was potent to tame Nāgā.  The Garuḷa had torn up a banyan tree, which shaded the ascetic’s walk.  A Nāga, which the Garuḷa had seized, coiled itself round the tree, but the Garuḷa carried the tree with the Nāga on it.  When he discovered that he had done the ascetic an injury in pulling up the tree, he felt repentant and taught the ascetic the Ālambāyana spell by way of atonement.  The ascetic, in turn, taught it to the poor brahmin, hoping it would help him.  The brahmin, now called Ālambāyana, left the ascetic and, while wandering about, came across some Nāgā, carrying Bhūridatta’s jewel.  They heard him recite the spell and fled in terror, leaving behind them the jewel, which he picked up.

When Somadatta and his father met the brahmin, they saw the jewel, and the father schemed to steal it.  He told Ālambāyana of the difficulties connected with guarding the jewel and of how dangerous it might prove, if not duly honored.  If Ālambāyana would give him the jewel, he would show him the abode of Bhūridatta, whom the brahmin might then capture, making money with his help.  When Somadatta realized his father’s treachery, he rebuked him and fled from him.  Ālambāyana went with the villager and captured Bhūridatta and crushed his bones.  Having thus rendered the Nāga helpless.  Ālambāyana put him in a basket and traveled about making him dance before large audiences.  The jewel, which Ālambāyana gave to the treacherous villager, slipped from the later’s hand and returned to the Nāga world.

On the day of the capture of Bhūridatta, his mother had a terrifying dream, and later, when Bhūridatta had been absent for a month, she grew very anxious and lamented piteously.  A search was instituted Kānāriṭṭha was sent to the deva world, Subhaga to Himavā, Sudassana and Accimukhī to the world of men.  Sudassana went disguised as an ascetic, and Accimukhī, assuming the form of a frog, hid in his matted hair.  They found Ālambāyana making ready to give an exhibition of Bhūridatta’s dancing before the king of Bārāṇasī.  Sudassana took up his stand at the edge of the crowd, and Bhūridatta, seeing him, went up to him.  The crowd retreated in fear.  When Bhūridatta was back in his basket, Sudassana challenged Ālambāyana to prove that his magic powers were greater than those of Sudassana.  This challenge was accepted, and Sudassana called out to Accimukhī who, uttering the frog’s cry, stood on his shoulder, and having spat drops of poison on to his palm, went back into his hair.  Saying that the country would be destroyed if the poison fell on the earth, Sudassana had three holes dug, and filled the first with drugs, the second with cow dung, and the third with heavenly medicines.  He poured the poison into the first hole; a flame instantly burst out, spread to the second, and, having traveled on to the third, consumed all the medicines and was extinguished.  Ālambāyana was standing near the last hole: the heat of the poison smote him, the color of his skin changed, and he became a leper.  Filled with terror, he set the Nāga free.  Bhūridatta assumed a radiant form decked with all ornaments; so did Sudassana and Accimukhī.  The king, on discovering that they were the children of Samuddajā, rejoiced greatly and entertained them.  Bhūridatta returned to the Nāga world, the king accompanying him.  The king stayed there for some days and then returned to his kingdom.

Subhaga, in the course of his wanderings, came across Somadatta’s father, and, on discovering that it was he who had betrayed Bhūridatta, snatched him away into the Nāga world, after first nearly drowning him in the whirlpools of the Yamunā.  Kānāriṭṭha, who was guarding the entrance to the room where Bhūridatta lay ill and tired after his experiences, protested against Subhaga’s ill-treatment of a brahmin, and described the greatness of the brahmins and the importance of holding sacrifices and of learning the Vedas.  The Nāgā, who were listening, were greatly impressed, and Bhūridatta, seeing them in danger of accepting false doctrine, sent for Kānārittha, confuted his arguments, and converted the Nāgā to the right view.  Sometime after, Bhūridatta, with his retinue, and followed by Dhataraṭṭha, Samuddajā, and their other children, visited his grandfather Brahmadatta, who had become an ascetic.  There they met Sāgara Brahmadatta, now king of Bārāṇasī, and great was the rejoicing over their reunion.  Samuddajā then returned with her family to the Nāga world, where they lived happily to the end of their days.  The story was related in reference to some laymen of Sāvatthi who kept the fast diligently.

Devadatta is identified with Ālambāyana, Ānanda with Somadatta, Uppalavaṇṇā with Accimukhī, Sāriputta with Sudassana, Mahā-Moggallāna with Subhaga, and Sunakkhatta with Kānāriṭṭha.

The story of Bhūridatta is used to illustrate the perfection of virtue (sīla-pāramī).  In the fifteenth century Raṭṭhasāra, a monk of Ava, wrote a metrical version of the Bhūridatta Jātaka.


Appendix 5: Mātaṅga


DPPN: Mātaṅga was a hermit.  One day he arrived in Bārāṇasī and went to a potter’s hall for the night.  He found the place already occupied by another hermit named Jātimanta, and was told by the potter that he could only stay there with Jātimanta’s permission.  Jātimanta agreed to his staying, but on finding that Mātaṅga was an outcaste (caṇḍāla), he wished him to occupy a place apart.  During the night Mātaṅga wished to go out, and, not knowing where Jātimanta was lying, trod on his chest.  When Mātaṅga returned he took the other way with the idea of passing near Jātimanta’s feet, but meanwhile Jātimanta had changed his position, and Mātaṅga again trod on his chest.  Jātimanta thereupon cursed him, saying that his head would split in seven pieces at sunrise.  Mātaṅga thereupon stopped the sun from rising.

The rest of the story is as in the Mātaṅga Jātaka (CST Jātakapāḷi-497).  It may be a variety of the same legend.

CST Jātakapāḷi-497 Mātaṅga Jātaka:

The Bodhisatta was once born in a village of outcastes (caṇḍāla) outside Bārāṇasī and was named Mātaṅga.  One day, when Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā, the daughter of a rich merchant, was on her way to the park with a group of friends, she saw Mātaṅga coming towards the city, and thinking the sight inauspicious, washed her eyes with perfumed water and turned back home.  Her companions, annoyed at being deprived of their fun, beat Mātaṅga and left him senseless.  On recovering consciousness, he determined to get Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā as his wife and lay down outside her father’s house refusing to move.  Seven days he lay thus until her relations, fearing the ignominy of having an outcaste die at their door, gave Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā to him as wife.

Knowing her pride to be quelled by this act, Mātaṅga decided to bring her great honor.  He, therefore, retired into the forest and in seven days, won supernatural power.  On his return he told her to proclaim abroad that her husband was not an outcaste, but Mahābrahmā, and that seven days later, on the night of the full-moon, he would come to her, breaking through the moon’s disk.  She did as he said and so it happened.  The people thenceforth honored her as a goddess; the water in which she washed her feet was used for the coronation of kings, and in one single day she received a hundred and eighty million from those who were allowed the privilege of saluting her.  Mātaṅga touched her navel with his thumb, and, knowing that she had conceived a son, admonished her to be vigilant and returned to the moon.

The son was born in the pavilion, which the people had constructed for the use of Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā, and was therefore called Maṇḍavya.  At the age of sixteen he knew all the Vedas and fed sixteen thousand brahmins daily.  On a feast day Mātaṅga came to him, thinking to turn him from his wrong doctrines, but Maṇḍavya failed to recognize him and had him cast out by his servants, Bhaṇḍakucchi, Upajjhāya, and Upajotiya.  The gods of the city thereupon grew angry and twisted the necks of Maṇḍavya and all the brahmins so that their eyes looked over their shoulders.  When Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā heard of this she sought Mātaṅga, who had left his footsteps so that she might know where he was.  He asked her to sprinkle on the brahmins water in which were dissolved the leavings of his food; to Maṇḍavya himself was given some of the food.  On recovering and seeing the plight of the brahmins, he realized his error.  The brahmins recovered, but were shunned by their colleagues; they left the country and went to live in the kingdom of Mejjha.

On the bank of the Vettavatī lived a brahmin called Jātimanta, very proud of his birth.  Mātaṅga went there to humble the pride of Jātimanta and lived higher up stream.  One day he nibbled a tooth stick and threw it into the river, where, lower down, it got entangled in Jātimanta’s hair.  He was greatly annoyed and went up stream, where he found Mātaṅga and told him that, if he stayed there any longer, at the end of seven days his head would split into seven pieces.  On the seventh day Mātaṅga stopped the sun from rising.  On discovering the cause, the people dragged Jātimanta to Mātaṅga and made him ask forgiveness, falling at Mātaṅga’s feet.  Jātimanta’s head was covered with a lump of clay, which was immersed in the water as the sun rose.

Mātaṅga then went to the kingdom of Mejjha, where the exiled brahmins reported against him to the king, saying that he was a magician and a mountebank.  The king’s messengers surprised Mātaṅga as he was eating his food beside a well, and cut off his head.  He was born in the Brahma world.  The gods were angry and wiped out the whole kingdom of Mejjha by pouring on it torrents of hot ashes.  Before his meeting with Diṭṭhamaṅgalikā the Bodhisatta was a mongoose-tamer (koṇḍadamaka).  The story was told in reference to the attempt of King Udena to torture Piṇḍola-Bhāradvāja.  Udena is identified with Maṇḍavya.


Appendix 6: Sutasoma and Porisāda

DPPN (CST Jātakapāḷi-537 Mahā Sutasoma Jātaka): Brahmadatta, king of Bārāṇasī, was greatly addicted to eating meat.  One uposatha day the meat that had been prepared for him was eaten by dogs, and the cook, unable to buy any more, cut a piece from a human body recently dead and cooked it.  Brahmadatta had been a yakkha in a former birth and therefore enjoyed the dish.  Having discovered what the meat was, he developed a taste for human flesh, and, in due course, came to having his subjects murdered in order to supply him with food.  His crime was discovered and his guilt brought home by his commander-in-chief, Kāḷahatthi, but the king refused to give up his cannibalism and was driven out of the kingdom.  Kāḷahatthi relates various stories to the king, showing the folly of his behavior e.g., the story of the fish Ānanda, of Sujāta’s son, of the geese who lived in Cittakūṭa and of the Unnanābhī spider.

The king dwelt in the forests with his cook, eating all the travellers they were able to seize.  The day arrived when he killed the cook himself and ate his flesh.  Sometime after he fell upon a brahmin travelling through the forest with a large retinue, and they gave chase to the king.  As he ran an acacia splinter pierced his foot, causing him great pain.  Seeing a banyan tree, he made a vow to bathe its trunk with the blood of one hundred and one princes if his foot were healed in seven days.  The foot did heal within that time, and with the assistance of a yakkha, who had been his friend in a previous birth, he managed to capture one hundred kings whom he hung on the tree by means of cords passed through their hands.

The deity of the tree was alarmed and, on the advice of Sakka, appeared before the man eater (who is called in the context Porisāda) and demanded that he should bring Sutasoma, Prince of Kuru, to complete the number of his victims.  Sutasoma had been the man-eater’s friend and private tutor (piṭṭhācariya) at Takkasilā.  Anxious to appease the deity, the man eater went to Sutasoma’s park and there waited for him hidden in the pond, when Sutasoma came to take his ceremonial bath on the festival day of Phussa.  On the way to the park, Sutasoma met a brahmin, Nanda, who offered, for four thousand pieces, to teach him four verses learnt from Kassapa Buddha.  Sutasoma promised to learn them on his return from the park, but there he was caught by the Porisāda.  Promising to return to the Porisāda, Sutasoma obtained leave to keep his appointment with Nanda.  This promise fulfilled, Sutasoma returned to the Porisāda and went with him to the banyan tree.  There he told the Porisāda of the verses he had learnt from Nanda, reciting them to him, and discoursing on the virtues of Truth.  Porisāda was greatly pleased and offered Sutasoma four boons.  Sutasoma chose as his first boon that the Porisāda should live for one hundred years; as his second that the captive kings should be released; as his third, that their kingdoms should be restored; and as his fourth that the Porisāda should give up his cannibalism.  Only very reluctantly did the Porisāda agree to the fourth.  Sutasoma then took him back to Bārāṇasī, where he restored to him his kingdom, having first assured the people that the king would never return to his former vicious habits.  Sutasoma then returned to Indapatta.  In gratitude for the tree sprite’s intervention, a lake was dug near the banyan tree and a village founded nearby, whose inhabitants were required to make offerings to the tree.  This village, built on the spot where the Porisāda was converted, came to be called Kammāsadamma.

Note: Kammāsadamma is the famous place where many suttā were preached, including LDB 22 Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta and MLDB 10 Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.  The place is in the Kuru Country, the modern Delhi area.

The story was related in reference to the Buddha’s conversion of Aṅgulimāla, with whom the man eater is identified.  Kāḷahatthi was Sāriputta, Nanda was Ānanda, the tree sprite was Kassapa, Sakka was Anuruddha, and Sutasoma the Bodhisatta (Jātakamāla 31).

Appendix 7: Suvaṇṇasāma

DPPN (CST Jātakapāḷi-540 Suvaṇṇasāma Jātaka, also known as Sāma Jātaka): Once two hunters, chiefs of villages, made a pact that if their children happened to be of different sexes, they should marry each other.  One had a boy called Dukūlakumāra, because he was born in a wrapping of fine cloth; the other had a daughter called Pārikā, because she was born beyond the river.  When they grew up the parents married them, but, because they had both come from the Brahma world, they agreed not to consummate the marriage.  With their parents’ consent they became ascetics, and lived in a hermitage provided for them by Sakka on the banks of the Migasammatā.  Sakka waited on them, and perceiving great danger in store for them, persuaded them to have a son.  The conception took place by Dukūlakumāra touching Pārikā’s navel (nābhiṃ) at the proper time (see Note at the end).  When the son was born, they called him Sāma (Unity, Understanding), and, because he was of golden color, he came to be called Suvaṇṇasāma.  He was the Bodhisatta.

One day, after Sāma was grown up, his parents, returning from collecting roots and fruits in the forest, took shelter under a tree on an anthill.  The water that dripped from their bodies angered a snake living in the anthill, and his venomous breath blinded them both.  When it grew late Sāma went in search of them and brought them home.  From then onwards he looked after them.

Pīḷiyakkha, the king of Bārāṇasī, while out hunting one day, leaving his mother in charge of the kingdom, saw Sāma drawing water, and, lest he should escape, shot at him with his arrow.  The king took him for some supernatural being, seeing that the deer, quite fearless, drank of the water while Sāma was filling his jar.

When Pīḷiyakkha heard who Sāma was and of how he was the mainstay of his parents, he was filled with grief.  Sāma fell down fainting from the poisoned arrow, and the king thought him dead.  A goddess, Bahusundarī, who had been Sāma’s mother seven births earlier, lived in Gandhamādana and kept constant watch over him.  This day she had gone to an assembly of the gods and had forgotten him for a while, but she suddenly became aware of the danger into which he had fallen.  She stood in the air near Pīḷiyakkha, unseen by him, and ordered him to go and warn Sāma’s parents.  He did as he was commanded, and, having revealed his identity, gradually informed them of Sāma’s fate and his own part in it.  However, neither Dukūlakumāra nor Pārikā spoke to him one word of resentment.  They merely asked to be taken to where Sāma’s body lay.  Arrived there, Pārikā made a solemn Act of Truth (saccakiriyā), and the poison left Sāma’s body, making him well.

Bahusundarī did likewise in Gandhamādana, and Sāma’s parents regained their sight.  Then Sāma taught the marvelling king, telling him how even the gods took care of those who cherished their parents.

The story was told in reference to a young man of Sāvatthi.  Having heard the Buddha teach, he obtained his parents’ leave with great difficulty and joined the Order.  Five years he lived in the monastery, and, failing to attain insight, he returned to the forest and strove for twelve years more.  His parents grew old, and as there was no one to look after them, their retainers robbed them of their goods.  Their son, hearing of this from a monk who visited him in the forest, at once left his hermitage and returned to Sāvatthi.  There he tended his parents, giving them food and clothing which he acquired by begging, often starving himself that they might eat.  Other monks blamed him for supporting lay folk, and the matter was reported to the Buddha.  However, the Buddha, hearing his story, praised him and taught him the Mātuposaka Sutta (CDB 7.19 Mother Supporter Sutta).

Dukūlakumāra is identified with Mahā-Kassapa, Pārikā with Bhaddā Kāpilānī, Pīḷiyakkha with Ānanda, Sakka with Anuruddha, and Bahusundarī with Uppalavaṇṇā.

The Sālikedāra Jātaka (CST Jātakapāḷi-484) was taught in reference to the same monk.

Note: Presumably a euphemism for the vulva.  The Pāḷi says: “Bhante, sace evaṃ na karotha, pārikāya tāpasiyā utunikāle nābhiṃ hatthena parāmaseyyāthā”ti”; i.e. Sakka tells Dukūlakumāra, “Venerable sir, if you cannot do that (indulge in the worldly dhamma of sexual intercourse) then touch Pārikā’s vulva with your hand when she is in season”.  So this is probably a case of artificial insemination rather than one of divine conception (ed.)


Pāḷi-English Glossary

(Pāḷi terms sorted in English alphabetical order – Pāḷi terms in bold are Pāḷi Proper Names)


1.       abhi* = well but not always.

2.       pari* = completely [except: paritappayiṃ, paritappasi = very tormented].

3.       sam* = fully but not always.

4.       vi* = fully, very [except: bahuvighātā, virajaṃ, virajjahaṃ, virajjantī, visaṃyuttaṃ, visaṃyuttā].

5.       vīta* = without.

6.       du as a prefix usually means bad, ill, not good, lacking, hard, etc.  su as a prefix usually means opposite.

7.       Mahā as a prefix means Great, Elder, etc. while cūla or cūḷa as a prefix denotes Little, Younger, etc.)




abbhantaraṃ (abhi + antaraṃ)

conceived, internalized (well + inside)


unparalleled, wonderful


uninterrupted, unbroken supply

abhāsitthāti (abhāsittha + iti)





making sounds

abhijātaṃ (abhi + jātaṃ), abhijātā

well-born (well + born)

abhinikkhami (abhi + nikkhami), abhinikkhamiṃ

went forth (fully + went forth)


having created


get established, settle-down, devote to


swear, curse


having sprinkled (well + irrigated)

abhitthanaya (abhi + t + thanaya)

thundered (well + thundered)

abhivassatha (abhi + vassatha), abhivassatu

pouring down (fully + rains down)

abujjhitvāna (= pabujjhitvāna)

woke up






lapse of

acchādanañca (acchādanaṃ + ca)

clothes too (clothes + too)

acchariyaṃ, accheraṃ




acchindanto, acchinditvāna


acetanāyaṃ (a + cetanāyaṃ)

non-living (without + intention)

ācikkhi, ācikkhatī, ācikkhiṃ

tell, told

adaṃ, adā, adāsi, adāsiṃ

giving, gave


bite, bit

adāsahaṃ (adāsa + ahaṃ), adāsaha, dāsahaṃ

I gave (gave + I)

adatvāna (a + datvāna)

ungiven (not + having given)


taken, having taken

addasaṃ, addasa, addasaṃsu

seeing, saw

addhiko, addhike


adeyyaṃ (a + deyyaṃ)

not to be given (not + to be given)

adhammo (a + dhammo)

non-Dhamma (not + Dhamma)

adhane (a + dhane)

poor (no + wealth)

adhiṭṭhānapāramī (adhiṭṭhāna + pāramī)

perfection of strong determination (strong determination + perfection)

adhiṭṭhāya, adhiṭṭhānena, adhiṭṭhahiṃ

strong determination

adhiṭṭhitamadhiṭṭhānaṃ (adhiṭṭhitaṃ + adhiṭṭhānaṃ)

strongly determined (established + in strong determination)

adinnaṃ (a + dinnaṃ)

ungiven (not + given)

Second of the five precepts is to abstain from this.

adinnapubbaṃ (a + dinna + pubbaṃ)

ungiven before (not + given + before)



burning, on fire

adutiyo (a + dutiyo)

without a second (without + second)

āgamanaṃ, āgameyyātha, āgañchiṃ, āgañchuṃ

came, coming back, come back, having come, returned, having returned


went, came to

agatiko (a + gatiko)

motionless (no + speed)

aggaṃ, aggahi


aggiṃ, aggi


aggivegabhayātītā (aggi + vega + bhaya + atītā)

fearful by speed of fire (fire + speed + fearful + past)

ahaṃ, ahañca (ahaṃ + ca), ahampi (ahaṃ + pi), ahameva (ahaṃ + eva)

I, I too (I + too), I myself (I + myself)

ahamekako (ahaṃ + ekako)

I alone (I + alone)

ahaṃpemī (ahaṃ + pi + emī)

howdy (I + too + this)

āharitvā, āharīyatu

having brought

ahituṇḍiko (ahi + tuṇḍiko)

snake charmer (snake + charmer)



ahorattānaṃ (aho + rattānaṃ)

long time, days and nights (day + night)

ahosi, ahosi

have been, I was


was, had

ajātapakkho (a + jāta + pakkho)

without wings (not + born + side)

ajāyahaṃ (ajāya + ahaṃ)

I was born (born + I)

ajja, ajjeva (ajja + eva)

today, today itself (today + itself)

ajjhogahetvā (adhi + ava + gahetvā), ajjhogāhetvā

entered into (inside + entered)

ajjuposatho (ajja + uposatho)

today is Uposatha (today + uposatha)


having pulled out, dragged along, upset, overthrown

akāmako (a + kāmako)

against will (no + desire)

akampitamasaṇṭhitaṃ (a + kampitaṃ + a + saṇṭhitaṃ), akampitthamasaṇṭhitaṃ

unwavering-unestablished (not + wavering + not + established)

akampito (a + kampito), akampi

not angry (not + wavering)

akāruṇā (a + kāruṇā)

merciless (no + compassion)

akāsahaṃ (akāsa + ahaṃ)

I did (did + I)

akāsiṃ, akāsi

I did

akataññunā (a + kataññunā)

ingrate (no + gratitude)

akiñcane (a + kiñcane)

without possessions (not + anything)

ākiriṃ, ākiritvā

done, having done

akitti (a + kitti)

Akitti (no + fame), not famous

akittibrāhmaṇo (akitti + brāhmaṇo)

Akitti brāhmaṇa (Akitti + brāhmaṇo)

akitticariyaṃ (akitti + cariyaṃ), akitticariyā

conduct of Akitti (Akitti + conduct)

akittivaggo (akitti + vaggo)

section on Akitti (Akitti + section)


walking upon

akkhobhaṃ (a + k + khobhaṃ), akkhobbhaṃ

imperturbable (not + perturbable)

āḷakakāsuyā (āḷaka + kāsuyā)

stake pit (post + pit)

ālambaṇo, ālambaṇe

support, sense-object

ālampāyano, ālampāyane



false, untrue



alīnasattucariyaṃ (alīnasattu + cariyaṃ), alīnasattucariyā

conduct of Alīnasatta (Alīnasatta + conduct)

aloṇikaṃ (a + loṇikaṃ)

saltless (no + salt)

amaccamaṇḍalaṃ (amacca + maṇḍalaṃ)

council of ministers (ministers + circle)

amacco, amaccā


āmantayī, āmantayitvā

addressed, spoke to

amanussake (a + manussake)

non-humans (non + humans)


by that touching, by that striking

amhe, amhākaṃ

us, for us, of us

amitadhanaṃ (a + mita + dhanaṃ)

countless wealth (not + count + wealth)

amitayaso (a + mita + yaso)

measureless reputation (not + measurable + reputation)


O mother, O daughter

anabhiratimanaṃ (an + abhi + rati + manaṃ)

dissatisfied mind (not + fully + delighting + mind)

anabhiratocariṃ (an + abhi + rato + cariṃ)

dwelling dissatisfied (not + fully + delighting + dwelling)

anagāriya (an + agāriya)

homelessness (without + home)

anapekkhā (an + apekkhā), anapekkhova

disinterested (without + expectations)



anariyo (an + ariyo), anariyena, anāriyaṃ

ignoble (not + noble)

anatthiko (an + atthiko)

desireless (not + aimed)

anavasesato (an + avasesato)

fully, wholly (no + remainder)







andhībhūtaṃ (andhī + bhūtaṃ)

blind (blind + become), unenlightened

anekasataṭhānesu (aneka + sata + ṭhānesu)

many hundreds of places (many + hundreds + places)

aṅgāragabbhakaṃ (aṅgāra + gabbhakaṃ)

embers (embers + embryo)




with folded hands [respectfully]

añjanasavhayaṃ (añjana + savhayaṃ)

named Añjana (Añjana + called)



aññamañña (añña + añña)

each other (each + each)



aññathatta (aññatha + atta)

is altered (altered + is), changed, different

aññepevaṃ (aññe + pi + evaṃ)

thus others too (others + too + thus)

anolaggo (an + olaggo), anolīno

not downcast (not + hanging down)

antepuraṃ, antepure

private quarters, zenana


end, inside


having experienced

anucchavo (an + ucchavo)

suitable, proper


with compassion


properly, appropriately, suitably, on the banks


smeared, applying unguents


on the path


agreed, rejoiced


completely, in entirety

anuppattaṃ, anuppatto



gradually [step by step, by and by]

anurakkhaparijano (anurakkha + pari + jano)

guarded by the close ones (protected + surrounding + people)

literally servants, attendants, retinue

anurakkhiṃ, anurakkhisaṃ, anurakkhanto

guard, protect

anusāsi, anusāsāmi

teaching, taught, governed




having remembered


fortnightly, bimonthly


follow, followers




fault, failure

aparājita (a + parājitaṃ)

undefeated (not + defeated)




unable to fly

api, pi, apicāhaṃ (api + ca + ahaṃ)

and, too, even, and then, also, and I too (and + I + too)

appabhe (a + p + pabhe)

no radiance (no + radiance)

appamādañca (a + p + pamādaṃ + ca), appamattassa

heedfulness (without + heedlessness + too), heedful

appasaddaṃ (appa + saddaṃ), appasadde

quiet (few + words)

appiyā (a + p + piyā)

not dear (not + dear)

apucchi, apucchiṃ, āpucchitvāna

asked, having asked, taking leave

āraddhavīriyā (āraddha + vīriyā)

firm and energetic (firm + energy)

ārādhanīyamesati (ārādhanīyaṃ + esati)

wishes to obtain (obtain + wishes)





arati (a + rati)

dissatisfaction (non + delight)

ariṭṭhasavhaye (ariṭṭha + savhaye)

named Ariṭṭha (Ariṭṭha + named)


informed, announced

arogo (a + rogo)

healthy (no + disease)

ārogyamanupāpayiṃ (ārogyaṃ + anupāpayiṃ)

reached health (health + reached)


placed, planted

asaṃsaṭṭhā (a + saṃsaṭṭhā)

unassociated (not + mixing)



asaṅkhiye (a + saṅkhiye)

uncountable (not + countable)

asārakaṃ (a + sārakaṃ)

essence-less (without + essence)



asesato (a + asesato)

without residue (without + remainder)

āsiṃ, āsi

I was

āsīvisamakopayi (āsīvisaṃ + akopayi)

angered the poisonous snake (poisonous snake + angered)

āsīvisena, āsīvisassa

a snake literally poisoned fang


taste, enjoyment

assamaddasa (assamaṃ + addasa)

saw ashram (ashram + saw)

assamaṃ, assame

hermitage, ashram


having comforted

assatthakālamaññāya (assattha + kālaṃ + aññāya)

understanding it was time to console (comforting + time + understanding)



asuñño (a + suñño)

not deprived (not + empty)

ataṇḍulaṃ (a + taṇḍulaṃ)

without rice (no + rice)



atelañca (a + telaṃ + ca)

and without oil (not + oil + too)

atha, athettha (atha + ettha)

thus, and, then, rather, thus here (thus + here)

athāparaṃ (atha + aparaṃ)

then follows (then + follows)